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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (В СФЕРЕ ЮРИСПРУДЕНЦИИ)



Кировский филиал

Кафедра общегуманитарных и социально-экономических дисциплин

 

 

УТВЕРЖДАЮ

«» 2014

 

 

Рабочая программа дисциплины

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (В СФЕРЕ ЮРИСПРУДЕНЦИИ)

 

Для студентов, обучающихся по направлению подготовки

 

 

Юриспруденция»

 

Киров 2014


 

Утверждено Учебно-методическим и редакционно-издательским советом КФ МФЮУ

(протокол № от « » 2014 г.)

 

Одобрено кафедрой «Общегуманитарных и социально-экономических дисциплин» КФ МФЮУ

(протокол № от « » 2014 г.)

 

 

Рецензент:

 

 

Кочурова Л.Г. «Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции». Рабочая программа дисциплины для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция».

Рабочая программа по дисциплине «Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции» составлена в соответствии с требованиями Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального образования по направлению подготовки (специальности) 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция» (квалификация (степень) «бакалавр»). В программе представлены цель и задачи дисциплины, содержание курса, примерный перечень вопросов к зачету/экзамену, учебно-методическое обеспечение курса.

Все предложенные материалы апробированы автором и нацелены на эффективное изучение студентом курса «Английский язык» как на аудиторных занятиях, так и в условиях самостоятельной подготовки.

 

 

    Содержание   1. Цели и задачи дисциплины 4 Объем дисциплины и виды учебной работы
Место дисциплины в структуре ООП
Требования к результатам освоения дисциплины Междисциплинарные связи и обеспечиваемыми (последующими) дисциплинами 2. Содержание дисциплины 8
3. Учебно-тематический план 9
4. Задания для самостоятельной работы 13 5. Тесты 61 6. Вопросы для экзаменов и зачетов 104
7. Учебно-методическое и информационное обеспечение дисциплины 106
 
 
 

 

ЦЕЛИ И ЗАДАЧИ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

Рабочая программа учебной дисциплины «Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции» составлена в соответствии с требованиями Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального образования по направлению подготовки (специальности) 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция» (квалификация (степень) «бакалавр»).

По рабочему учебному плану дисциплина «Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции» относится к блоку общеобразовательных дисциплин, при ее изучении предполагается максимальная учебная нагрузка 180 часов, самостоятельная учебная нагрузка студентов - 108 часов, всего - 72 аудиторных часа на дневном отделении. На заочном отделении 24 часа – аудиторной работы и 156 часов – самостоятельной. Общая трудоемкость дисциплины составляет 5 зачетных единиц.Все учебные занятия являются практическими.

Дисциплина «Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции» связана с такими дисциплинами, как «Русский язык и культура речи», «Профессиональная этика». В свою очередь, знания иностранного языка делают более продуктивным изучение такого предмета как «Культурология».

Содержание основного модуля направлено на коррекцию и совершенствование навыков и умений, сформированных в школе. В ходе освоения профессионально-направленного модуля проводится обучение английскому языку с учетом гуманитарного профиля профессионального образования. Языковой материал профессионально направленного модуля предполагает введение нового, более сложного и одновременно профессионально ориентированного материала, формирующего более высокий уровень коммуникативных навыков и умений.

Отличительной чертой программы является ее ориентированность на юридическую направленность, изучение и использование юридической терминологии.

Рабочая программа учитывает, что обучение английскому языку происходит в ситуации отсутствия языковой среды, поэтому предпочтение отдается тем материалам, которые создают естественную речевую ситуацию общения и несут познавательную нагрузку.

При изучении дисциплины преследуется цель – повышение общего культурного уровня студентов путем сообщения сведений из правовой области, и обогащения словарного запаса обучаемых профессиональной терминологией. Основная цель обучения иностранному языку реализуется с учётом коммуникативного, компетентностного, личностно - ориентированного и дифференцированного подходов.

Рабочая программа ориентирована на достижение следующих задач:

- совершенствование умений строить свое речевое и неречевое поведение адекватно правовой специфике;

- формирование умений составлять резюме на основе прочитанного текста;

- формирование умений выделять общее и специфическое в культуре родной страны и страны изучаемого языка;

- дальнейшее развитие умений объясняться в условиях дефицита языковых средств;

- совершенствование умений читать литературу по специальности на уровне изучающего, поискового, ознакомительного чтения;

- формирование умения комментировать графики, схемы, диаграммы, символику юридического характера;

- использование иностранного языка в других областях знаний; развитие способности к самооценке через наблюдение за собственной речью на родном и иностранном языках;

- личностному самоопределениюв отношении будущей профессии.

Достижение целей и решение выше обозначенных задач обеспечивается формированием общекультурных компетенций (ОК-5, ОК-7, ОК-8, ОК-13), заложенных в ФГОС ВПО 40.03.01.

 

 

В результате изучения дисциплины выпускник должен

знать: лексическо-грамматический минимум по юриспруденции в объеме необходимом для работы с иноязычными текстами в процессе профессиональной (юридической деятельности);

уметь: читать и переводить иноязычные тексты профессиональной направленности;

владеть: необходимыми навыками профессионального общения на иностранном языке, навыками постановки экономических и управленческих целей и их эффективного достижения, исходя из интересов различных субъектов и с учетом непосредственных и отдаленных результатов.

Изучение дисциплины в первом семестре завершается зачётом, во втором – экзаменом на дневном и заочном отделениях.

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ УЧЕБНОЙ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

Дисциплина изучается два семестра, где продолжается работа по овладению, совершенствованию навыков работы устной и письменной речи. На данном этапе ставится цель углубить лексические и грамматические знания в рамках делового профессионального общения.

В качестве основных учебных материалов используются оригинальные и адаптированные общественно-политические тексты, газетные статьи, аутентичные аудиоматериалы, являющиеся основой восприятия и изучения языка и профессиональной подготовки студентов (юристов).

Чтение.

· Владение всеми видами чтения специальной литературы юридического профиля,

· передача содержания прочитанного;

· совершенствование навыков проведения различных операций с материалами текста на подтекстовом, тектовом и послетекстовом этапах.

Говорение и аудирование.

· Обучение устному обмену информацией в процессе повседневных и деловых контактов, деловых встреч и совещаний, формирование навыков овладения правовой лексикой, закрепление ее в разнообразных упражнениях и применение в дискуссиях и ролевых играх;

· обучение монологическим высказываниям профессионального характера;

· понимание сообщения профессионального характера (в монологической форме и в ходе диалога).

Письмо.

· Адекватный перевод с иностранного языка (английский) на русский и с русского на иностранный, с учетом специфики синтаксических и лексико-грамматических структур иностранного языка (английский);

· составление плана, тезисов сообщения, доклада профессионального характера;

· фиксирование нужной информации при аудировании.

Основными требованиями, предъявляемыми к студентам-юристам, являются:

· умение правильно с точки зрения произношения, выбора лексических единиц и грамматических структур излагать свои мысли по правовой тематике с использованием необходимых эмоционально-модальных средств языка;

· свободное понимание монологической, диалогической речи юридического профиля;

· понимание содержания оригинальных и адаптированных общественно-политических текстов, научных статей профессионального характера;

· владение навыками выразительного чтения вслух;

· умение адекватно реагировать в процессе диалогической речи;

· умение дать правильный перевод текста без искажения его смысловых особенностей.

 

Лексика

Дальнейшее расширение потенциального словаря, репродуктивная лексика правового профиля в объеме 1000 единиц.

 

Грамматика

Изучение грамматического материала должно носить функциональный характер, соответствующий конкретному этапу обучения и специфики текстов учебных пособий. За курс обучения студент должен репродуктивно усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

Морфология. Артикль. Формы артикля и общее понятие их употребления. Имя существительное. Образование множественного числа. Выражение падежных отношений с помощью порядка слов и предлогов. Общий и притяжательный падежи. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения. Наречие. Место наречия в предложении. Степени сравнения наречий. Имя числительное. Количественные и порядковые числительные. Чтение хронологических дат и формул. Местоимение. Разряды местоимений. Неопределенные местоимения и их производные. Глагол. Категории глаголов – правильные и неправильные, основные формы глаголов. Образование, употребление и перевод временных форм глагола в действительном и страдательном залоге. Согласование времен. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Неличные формы глагола, их синтаксические функции в предложении и особенности их перевода на русский язык. Предлоги. Наиболее употребительные предлоги места, времени, движения и их сравнение с русскими предлогами. Многозначность предлогов.

Синтаксис. Порядок слов в распространенном повествовательном предложении. Типы вопросительных предложений и порядок слов в них. Образование отрицательных предложений. Виды придаточных предложений и бессоюзное подчинение определительных и дополнительных предложений. Инверсия. Инфинитив в составе сложного подлежащего и сложного дополнения и особенности перевода этих конструкций на русский язык.

УЧЕБНО-ТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЛАН

UNIT 1

THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT

The British Government consists of the Prime Minister and other ministers, all of whom are collectively responsible for every part of the Government’s administration. All the members are appointed, formally, by the Queen, but she makes the appointment entirely on the Prime Minister’s advise. The Prime Minister effectively appoints the other ministers and may also require them to resign.

All the ministers must be members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, and a minister may speak only in the House of which he is a member. Some of the ministers are entitled, for example, «Minister of Transport» but other officers have special titles, such as the Chancellor of the Exchequer (who presides over finance), the President of the Board of Trade and the Lord Chancellor (who presides over the administration of justice).

There are several Secretaries of State in the British Government. They are the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Secretary of State for Home Department, etc. The Cabinet consists of the heads of the most important Departments together with a few ministers without departments. The Prime Minister decides which ministers will be included. The Cabinet has only real powers and takes the effective decisions about what is to be done. The structure of the Government is frequently changed as new departments are set up or existing departments are merged.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Government ['gΛ vnm∂ nt] – правительство

The Prime Minister [¸ praim'inist∂ ] – премьер-министр

Minister of Transport ['træ nspo: t] – министр средств сообщения

The Chansellor ['t∫ a: ns∂ l∂ ] of the Exchequer [iks't∫ ek∂ ] – министр финансов

The President of the Board ['bo: d] of Trade ['treid] – министр торговли

The Lord Chancellor – лорд-канцлер

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs [¸ forin ∂ 'fε ∂ z] – министр иностранных дел

The Secretary of State for Scotland – министр по делам Шотландии

The Secretary of State for Home Department [di'pa: tm∂ nt] – министр внутренних дел

To be responsible for [ris'pons∂ bl] – быть ответственным за что-либо

To appoint [∂ 'point] – назначать

Department [di'pa: tm∂ nt] – ведомство, министерство

Effectively [i'fektivli] – по закону

Frequently ['fri: kw∂ ntli] – часто

To require [ri'kwai'] – требовать

To resign [ri'zain] – уйти в отставку, отказаться от должности

To preside over [pri'zaid] – осуществлять контроль над

Administration of justice [∂ d¸ mini'strei∫ ∂ n forin ¸ ∂ v 'dзΛ stis] – министерство юстиции

To include [in'klu: d] – включать

To set up – учреждать

To merge ['m∂: dз] – отменять, поглощать

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find in the text.

q вместе отвечают за

q формально назначаются королевой

q полностью (всецело) следуя указаниям премьер-министра

q потребовать их отставки

q министр путей сообщения

q министр финансов

q министр торговли

q министр иностранных дел

q министерство юстиции

q реальные полномочия

q часто изменяются

q учреждаются

q отменяются

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences.

1) All the ministers are collectively responsible for _______.

2) The Queen makes the appointment _______.

3) All the ministers must be _______.

4) There are several Secretaries or State in the British Government: _______.

5) The Cabinet consists of _______.

6) The structure of the Government is frequently changed because _______.

Exercise 3. Give English equivalents to the words in brackets.

1. The Prime Minister and other ministers (отвечают за) every part of Government’s administration.

2. All the members (назначаются) by the Queen on the Prime Minister’s (совет).

3. The Prime Minister may require the other ministers (уйти в отставку).

4. The Chancellor of the Exchequer (осуществляет контроль) over finance.

5. Лорд-канцлер presides over (министерство) of justice.

6. The Cabinet consists of (главы самых значительных ведомств) together with a few ministers without departments.

Exercise 4. Put the correct Voice form.

1. The members of the British Government (appoint/ are appointed) by the Queen.

2. The Prime Minister (is required/ requires) this minister to resign.

3. A minister (speaks/ is spoken) only in the House of which he is a member.

4. The Prime Minister (decides/ is decided) which ministers will be included.

Exercise 5. Find sentences with modal verbs and translate them.

Exercise 6. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. The Queen appoints the members of the government without the Prime Minister’s advice.

2. The Prime Minister can’t require some of the other ministers to resign.

3. A minister may speak in any House.

4. The Lord Chancellor presides over the administration of justice.

5. The Cabinet consists of only a few ministers without departments.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions on the text.

1. Whom does the British Government consist of?

2. What are the ministers responsible for?

3. How are the members of the British Government appointed?

4. What ministers of the British Government do you know?

5. What are the functions of the Prime Minister/ of the Cabinet?

6. Why is the structure of the government so frequently changed?

Exercise 8. Compose a plan.

Exercise 9. Retell the Text.

UNIT 2

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Branch ['bra: nt∫ ] – ветвь, отделение

Appeal [∂ 'pi: l] – апелляция

Juvenile ['dзu: vinail] – юный

Task 2

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

q общее право

q решение суда

q уголовный кодекс

q гражданский кодекс

q мировой судья

q Суд короны

q гражданское дело

q суды графств

q Европейский суд по делам человека

q правовая система

q суд по делам несовершеннолетних

q правонарушитель

q насильственная смерть

q уголовное дело

Exercise 2. Find all the types of courts in England and Wales and translate them.

Exercise 3. Find the sentences in the Passive Voice and translate them.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.

1. The most common type of law court is ________.

2. Criminal cases go to ________ and Civil cases go to ________.

3. The legal system also includes ________.

4. Tribunals deal with disputes ________.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions.

1. Who is responsible for making laws in Britain?

2. In the United Kingdom what is the difference between criminal and civil law?

3. What is the most common type of law court in England and Wales?

4. Name three other types of British courts.

Exercise 6. Work in pairs and discuss the following

Which courts do you think would deal with:

a) a bank robbery?

b) a divorce case?

c) a burglary committed by a fifteen-year teen?

d) a drowning?

e) a case of driving too fast?

Exercise 7. Make up a scheme of the text.

Exercise 8. Retell the text.

UNIT 3

THE US GOVERNMENT

By the constitution the government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one and the judicial one. The executive power is headed by a President who holds office for four years and is elected, together with a Vice-President chosen for the same term, by electors from each state. The President must be a native-born citizen, resident in the country for fourteen years and at least thirty-five years old. The presidential election is held every fourth year on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

The legislative power is represented by a Congress, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of two members from each state, chosen for six years. The House of Representatives is elected every other year. The number of each state’s representatives depends on the number of people in this particular state.

An important role in the American legislature is played by so-called “lobbyists”. Their work is to make a congressman vote for measures favorable to the group the lobbyists represent. There are several basic principles which are found at all levels of American government. One of these says that legislators are elected from geographical districts directly by the voters. Under this principle all election districts must have the same number of residents. Another fundamental principle of American government is that compromise in politics is a matter of necessity, not choice. For example, the House of Representatives controls spending and finance, so the President must have its agreement for his proposals and programmes. In foreign affairs he is also strongly limited. So what a President wants to do is often a different thing from what a President is able to do.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Branch ['bra: nt∫ ] – ветвь

Executive [ig'zekj: tiv] – исполнительный

Judicial [dзu: 'di∫ ∂ l] – судебный

To head ['hed] – возглавлять

To hold office – занимать должность

To elect [i'lekt] – выбирать (голосованием)

Native-born ['neitiv bo: n] – уроженец

Resident ['rezid∂ nt] – постоянный житель

Particular [p∂ 'tikjl∂ ] – отдельный

To vote ['v∂ ut] – голосовать

Voter ['v∂ ut∂ ] – избиратель

Measure ['meз∂ ] – мера

Favourable ['feiv∂ r∂ bl] – подходящий, удобный

To represent [¸ repri'zent] – представлять

Level ['lev∂ l] – уровень

Election district [i¸ lek∫ n'distrikt] – избирательный округ

Compromise in politics ['kompr∂ maiz in 'politiks] – политический компромисс

Matter ['mæ t∂ ] – вопрос

Choice ['t∫ ois] – выбор

Finance [fai'næ ns] – доходы

Proposal [pr∂ 'p∂ uz∂ l] – предложение, план

Directly [di'rektli] – непосредственно

Legislative ['ledзisl∂ tiv] – законодательный

Legislature ['ledзisleit∫ ∂ ] – законодательная власть, законодательный орган штата

Legislator ['ledзisleit∂ ] – законодатель

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

q согласно конституции

q возглавляется президентом

q представлена конгрессом

q занимает пост

q срок

q избиратель

q городской житель (уроженец города)

q палата представителей

q избирательный округ

q вопрос необходимости

q контролирует доходы и расходы

q внешняя политика

q строго ограничен

 

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences.

1. The USA government is composed of three branches: ________.

2. The US President must be ________.

3. The presidential election is held ________.

4. The work of “lobbyists” is ________.

5. The House of Representatives controls ________.

Exercise 3. Find kin words in the text and translate them.

e.g. to vote – voter - избиратель

1. to elect –

2. president –

3. to legislate –

4. direct –

5. strong –

6. to agree –

7. to propose –

Exercise 4. Insert the necessary words.

1. The _______ power is headed by a _______.

2. The President must be _______ in the country for 14 years.

3. The Presidential _______ is held every fourth year.

4. An important role in the American legislature is played by _______.

5. Legislators are elected from geographical districts by _______.

6. Compromise in politics is a matter of _______.

Exercise 5. Choose the correct Voice form.

1. The executive power (heads/ is headed) by a President.

2. The presidential election (holds/ is held) every fourth year.

3. Members of the Senate (are chosen/ choose) for six years.

4. “Lobbyists” (play/ is played) an important role in the American legislature.

5. Legislators (elect/ are elected) directly by the voters.

6. The House of Representatives (is controlled/ controls) spending and finance.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions on the text.

1. How many branches is the US government composed of?

2. How long does the US president hold office?

3. When is the presidential election held?

4. What Houses does the US Congress consist of?

5. Who plays an important role in the American legislature?

6. What are the basic principles of American government?

Exercise 7. Put questions to the underlined words.

1. The executive power is headed by a President.

2. The US President must be a native-born citizen.

3. The presidential election is held every fourth year.

4. The number of each state’s representatives depends on the number of people in this particular state.

5. In foreign affairs he is also strongly limited.

Exercise 8. Find in the text the information about:

ü the US President

ü the US Congress

ü “lobbyists”

ü basic principles of American government

Exercise 9. Compose a plan.

Exercise 10. Retell the text.

UNIT 4

CONGRESS

Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. The Senators represent all of the people in a state and their interests.

The House has 435 members. They are elected every two years two-year terms. They represent the population of “congressional districts” into which each state is divided. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. For instance, California, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number of terms a Senator or a Representative may serve.

Almost all elections in the United States follow the “winner-take-all” principle: the candidate who wins the largest number of votes in a Congressional district is the winner.

Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because legislation only becomes law if both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary. Congress decides upon taxes and how money is spent. In addition, it regulates commerce among the states and with foreign countries. It also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign citizens.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

the Senate ['senit] – сенат

Representative [¸ repri'zent∂ tiv] – представитель, делегат

Population [¸ popju'lei∫ ∂ n] – население

To divide [di'vaid] – делить

To base ['beis] – базировать, основывать

California [¸ kæ li'fo: nj∂ ] – Калифорния

Delaware ['del∂ wε ∂ ] – Делавер

Limit ['limit] – ограничение, предел

To serve ['s∂: v] – служить

To follow ['fol∂ u] – следовать чему-либо

Candidate ['kæ ndidit] – кандидат

To make laws ['lo: z] – издавать законы

To introduce legislation [intr∂ 'dju: s ¸ ledзis'lei∫ ∂ n] – вносить законопроект на рассмотрение

Tax ['tæ ks] – налог, пошлина

Commerce ['kom∂: s] – торговля, общение

Naturalization [¸ næ t∫ r∂ lai'zei∫ ∂ n] – натурализация, устройство

 

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

q законодательная речь

q сенатор

q 6-летний срок службы

q каждые два года

q избирательный округ

q базируется на

q выборы

q набирать наибольшее количество голосов

q голосовать против законопроекта

q если обе палаты согласны

q устанавливать размеры налогов

q регулировать отношения между штатами

q устройство иностранных граждан

Exercise 2. Give English equivalents in brackets.

1. Congress is made up of (Сенат) and (Палата представителей).

2. Each (сенатор) is elected for six years and each (представитель) for two years, with no limitation on the number of (сроков).

3. Almost all elections (следуют) the (победитель получает все) principle.

4. Each (палата) of (Конгресс) has the (полномочия) to introduce (законопроект).

5. Legislation only (становится законом) if (компромисс) between two houses is found.

6. Congress decides upon (налоги), (регулирует) commerce among the states and (устанавливает правила) for the (устройство) of foreign citizens.

Exercise 3. Find sentences with Passive Voice and translate them.

Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. The executive power is exercised by Congress.

2. The number of Representatives from each state depends on its population.

3. A Senator or a Representative may serve only one term.

4. Only the Senate has the power to introduce legislation.

5. The only function of Congress is regulating commerce among the states.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions on the text.

1. What power of the government does Congress exercise?

2. What Houses does Congress consist of?

3. How are the Senators and Representatives elected?

4. What do the Senators represent?

5. How many terms may a Senator or a Representative serve?

6. What candidate wins in the election?

7. What are the functions of Congress?

Exercise 6. Put questions to get these answers.

1. Each state is divided into “congressional districts”.

2. Almost all elections follow the “winner-take-all” principle.

3. Legislation becomes law if both Houses agree.

4. The House of Representatives has 435 members.

Exercise 7. Compose a plan.

Exercise 8. Retell the text.

 

UNIT 5

MARRIAGE AS A CONTRACT

In English law, marriage is an agreement by which a man and woman enter into a certain legal relationship with each other and which creates mutual rights and duties. Marriage is clearly a contract, it may be void or voidable. But it is, of course, quite unlike any commercial contract.

A marriage may only be contracted if special formalities are carried. The grounds on which a marriage may be void or voidable are for the most part completely different from those on which other contracts may be void or voidable. A contract of marriage cannot be discharged by agreement, frustration or breach. Apart from death, it can be terminated only by a decree of dissolution (or divorce) pronounced by a court of competent jurisdiction. Provided that they do not offend against rules of public policy or statutory prohibitions, the parties to a commercial contract may make such terms as they think fit. But the fact that marriage creates a status limits the parties' power to make their own terms and also may affect their legal rights and duties with respect to other persons.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Agreement [∂ g'ri: m∂ nt] – соглашение, договор

Mutual ['mju: tu∂ l] – взаимный

Void ['void] – недействительный

Frustration [fr∂ s'trei∫ n] – расстройство планов

Breach ['bri: t∫ ] – разрыв отношений

Fit – подходящий

To discharge [dis't∫ a: dз] – разрывать, расторгать

To terminate ['t∂: mineit] – положить конец, завершить

Decree [di'kri: ] – постановление

Dissolution [¸ dis∂ 'lu: ∫ ∂ n] – расторжение, ликвидация

Divorce [di'vo: s] – развод

To offend against smth – нарушать что-либо

Statutory ['stæ tjut∂ ri] – установленный законом

Prohibition [¸ pr∂ hi'bi∫ ∂ n] – запрещение

Voidable – действительный

Task 2

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents in the text.

q брак

q недействительный брак

q противоречить правилам

q подходящие условия

q расторгать брак

q законные права и обязанности

Exercise 2. Match the words from the two columns. Translate the phrases.

a) Legal duties
  Mutual formalities
  Special marriages
  statutory prohibitions
  Void relationships
b) a contract of competent jurisdiction
  a court of marriage
  a decree of dissolution
  a party of public policy
  Rules to a contract

Exercise 3. Find the international words in the text.

Exercise 4. Find the sentences with modal verbs in the text and translate them.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences. Consult the text.

1. Marriage is quite unlike ________.

2. A marriage may only be contracted if ________.

3. The parties may make the terms as ________.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions.

1. What is marriage in English law?

2. Is marriage like any commercial contract?

3. How many dissimilarities do we find between marriage and any commercial contract?

4. When may a marriage be contracted?

5. How can a voidable marriage be terminated?

6. Can the parties make their own terms for contracting a marriage?

Exercise 7. Agree or disagree to the following statements.

1. Marriage like other contracts may be void or voidable?

2. No special formalities are carried out in contracting a marriage.

3. A contract of marriage can be discharged by agreement of the parties concerned.

4. Marriage limits the parties power to make their own terms.

5. Marriage doesn’t affect the legal rights and duties of the parties with respect to other persons.

Exercise 8. Make up the plan of the text.

Exercise 9. Retell the text.

 

UNIT 6

PARENTS AND CHILDREN

Hands up any parent who has never smacked their child. Hands up anyone who was never smacked as a child. The numbers are few. Since the dawn of history parents have corrected their children by smacking. But it is already illegal in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Austria. Germany and Canada want to introduce some laws. Can Britain be far behind? The child experts agree that physical punishment should be outlawed. It leads to more violence in society.

But the cases of cruelty differ from smacks used by parents who teach their children how to behave.

In her excellent book on child care " Good children" Lynette Burrows writes that a quick, minimally-painful smack is the most sensible corrective in child development.

The mother is the ideal person to do this since she combines love and concern for the child with a physical presence.

The «experts» who believe all smacking should be outlawed perhaps don’t understand other forms of cruelty which are very damaging to children. Coldness, emotional rejection, hurtful words and not spending time with children are cruel, too.

Violent crime and aggression are just as often in non-smacking Scandinavia as elsewhere. In the Mediterranean summer resorts Swedish and Dutch teenagers bully and fight. In Greece and Spain people are appalled by the behavior of these more " progressive" tourists.

Parents must be responsible for their children until the age of majority.

Normal parents do not take any pleasure in punishing their children. Of course, we must reject cruelty or brutality to children: but making the reasonable smack illegal is not the way.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Smack - to punish ['pΛ ni∫ ] – наказывать

Punishment – наказание

Violence ['vai∂ l∂ ns] – жестокость, насилие

Cruelty ['kru∂ lti] – жестокость

To hold office – занимать должность

To elect [i'lekt] – выбирать (голосованием)

Native-born ['neitiv bo: n] – уроженец

Resident ['rezid∂ nt] – постоянный житель

Particular [p∂ 'tikjl∂ ] – отдельный

To vote ['v∂ ut] – голосовать

Voter ['v∂ ut∂ ] – избиратель

Measure ['meз∂ ] – мера

Favourable ['feiv∂ r∂ bl] – подходящий, удобный

To represent [¸ repri'zent] – представлять

Level ['lev∂ l] – уровень

Election district [i¸ lek∫ n'distrikt] – избирательный округ

Compromise in politics ['kompr∂ maiz in 'politiks] – политический компромисс

Matter ['mæ t∂ ] – вопрос

Choice ['t∫ ois] – выбор

Finance [fai'næ ns] – доходы

Proposal [pr∂ 'p∂ uz∂ l] – предложение, план

Directly [di'rektli] – непосредственно

Legislative ['ledзisl∂ tiv] – законодательный

Legislature ['ledзisleit∫ ∂ ] – законодательная власть, законодательный орган штата

Legislator ['ledзisleit∂ ] – законодатель

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

 

UNIT 7

The USA

The United States of America is situated in the central part of the North America continent. Its total area is about nine and a half million square kilometers. In size, the USA ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and China. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast - by the Atlantic Ocean. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia.

The continental part of the USA consists of four physical geographical parts: two highland and two lowland regions. The highland regions are the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Rocky Mountains in the west. The highest peak in the Appalachian Mountains is 2, 037 meters high. The highest peak of the Cordillera in the USA is 4, 418 meters high. The Appalachian Mountains are very old. The valleys between them are rich in coal. The Rocky Mountains are considered to be young, high, rough, and irregular in shape. The highest mountain is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska (6, 198).

Between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains there are the central lowlands, called the prairie, and the eastern lowlands, called the Mississippi valley.

The five Great Lakes, between the USA and Canada, include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. They are all joined together by short rivers or canals, and the St. Lawrence River joins them to the Atlantic Ocean. In the west of the USA there is another lake called the Great Salt Lake.

The main rivers of the USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grand, the Yukon, the Colorado, the Columbia, and the St. Lawrence River.

The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climate zones. The coldest regions are in the north and north-east, where much snow falls in winter. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast. The region around the Great Lakes is known for its changeable weather.

Vocabulary

To rank – занимать какое-либо место

Mexico ['meksik∂ u] – Мексика

Highland ['hail∂ nd] – плоскогорье, нагорье

Lowland ['l∂ ul∂ nd] – низина, долина

The Appalachian Mountains – г. Аппалачи

The Cordillera - Кордильеры

The Rockey Mountains – Скалистые горы

Rough ['rΛ f] – неровный, зазубренный, резкий

The prairie ['prε ∂ ri] – прерия, степь

The Great Lakes – Великие озера

Lake Superior – Верхнее озеро

Lake Michigan ['mi∫ ig∂ n] – озеро Мичиган

Lake Huron – озеро Гурон

Lake Erie – озеро Эри

Lake Ontario – озеро Онтарио

St. Lawrence River – река Св. Лаврентия

the Missouri - Миссури

Exercise 1. Fill in the prepositions.

1) The USA is situated … the central part of the North American continent.

2) In size, the US ranks fourth … the nations after Russia, Canada, China.

3) Its western coast is washed … the Pacific Ocean.

4) The USA borders … Canada in the north and … Mexico in the south.

5) It also has a sea-border … Russia.

6) The valley … the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains are rich … coal.

7) The Rocky Mountains are rough and irregular … shape.

8) The St. Laurens River joins the five Great Lakes … the Atlantic Ocean.

9) Hot winds blowing … the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons.

10) The climate … the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

11) The region … the Great Lakes is known for its changeable weather.

Exercise 2. Find and replace wrong words.

1) The USA is situated in the eastern part of the North American continent.

2) In size, the USA ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and Japan.

3) The eastern coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean.

4) The USA borders on Canada in the North and on Australia in the south.

5) The low land regions are the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Cordillera and the Rocky Mountains in the west.

6) The Appalachian Mountains are very young.

7) The central lowlands are called the meadows and the eastern lowlands are called the Missouri valley.

8) The five Great Lakes are all separated together by short rivers or canals.

9) The climate of Alaska is subtropical.

10) Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons.

UNIT 8

US Cities

The population of the USA is nearly 239 million people. Most of them are townspeople. The native population is only about 1 million Indians of different tribes. Many of them live in reservations. As a result of prolonged immigration, now there are more than 25 million British Americans (nearly half the population of Britain), about 23 million African Americans, 25 million German Americans and more Irish Americans than the whole population of Ireland, many people from the Middle East and the Far East. The official language is English.

The capital of the USA is Washington, the District of Columbia (D.C.). The US Congress has its seat in the Capitol, and the White House is the residence of the President.

New York is the largest city and port with its suburbs, it has a population of about 13 million people. It is the financial and business center of the capitalist world. It is famous for its skyscrapers.

The second largest city is Chicago. It is situated on the Lake Michigan, in Illinois. It is one of the biggest industrial center.

The third largest city is Los Angeles, in California. It is an important centre of modern industries. Not far from it is Hollywood, the world-known centre of the US film business.

The forth largest city is Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania. Light industry is highly developed here. Philadelphia is an important cultural centre with many fine buildings and a university. The Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed, is situated in the city.

San-Francisco, on the Pacific Coast, is a big port and ship-building centre. It is the heartland of California of great interest are its nine bridges over the Golden Gate Channel between the Pacific Ocean and San-Francisco Bay.

Detroit, in the Great Lake region, is the largest city of Michigan. It is known as an automobile capital. General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, American Motors are well-known automobile companies.

Boston is one of the first towns founded on the Atlantic coast of America. It is historically famous for the Boston Tea Party, which later developed into the War for Independence. Now it is the capital and the largest city in Massachusetts, an important port, a financial and cultural centre.

Vocabulary

A tribe – племя

Reservation [, rez∂ ’vei∫ n]– резервация

Prolonged – затянувшийся, долгий

Suburbs – окраины

Skyscraper – небоскреб

Chicago [∫ I’ka: gou]

Illinois [, il∂ ’noi]

Los Angeles [los’æ ndз∂ li: z]

California [, kæ l∂ ’fo: ni∂ ]

Pennsylvania [, pnsl’veini∂ ]

San-Francisco [, sæ nfr∂ n’sisk∂ u]

Bay – залив

Detroit [di’troit]

Massachusetts [, mæ s∂ ’t ∫ u: sits]

Exercise 1. Divide the text into parts. Give titles to each part.

Exercise 3. Put questions to the first part of the text.

Exercise 4. What city are these words about?

a) the largest city in Massachusetts; one of the first towns on the Atlantic coast;

b) the heartland of California;

c) has a population of about 133 million people;

d) the third largest city in the USA;

e) is situated on the Lake Michigan, in Illinois;

f) the White House is situated in this city;

g) is famous for its skyscrapers;

h) is in Pennsylvania; an important cultural centre;

i) is an automobile capital;

j) the nine bridges over the Golden Gate Channel is the main sightseeing of this city;

k) here you can find the Independence Hall.

UNIT 9

National Economy

The US economy is based on the free enterprise system. Private businesses compete against one another with relatively little interference from the government. Since the depression of the 1930-s, when the economy essentially collapsed, laws have been made giving the government a more active role in economic and other matters.

The USA is one of the most highly developed states. It leads the world in industrial and agricultural production, leaving some countries far behind.

The United States owes its high level of economic development mainly to its great mineral riches. It has been able to use them for a long time without wars. No one of the world wars of the 20th century took place on its territory. The US monopolies only became richer from the world wars.

The US is rich in a variety of mineral resources. It is a world leader in the production of many important mineral resources, such as aluminum, cement, copper, lead, phosphates, potash, salt, uranium, and zinc. The country is rich in coal, iron, oil, petroleum, natural gas and holds first place in the capitalist world for their production. It also has gold, silver, such non-ferrous as aluminum, magnesium, titanium. Since the end of World War II the US has exported raw materials, agricultural and industrial products.

Computers, and automatic systems characterize the advances in technology. The heavy industries are for the most part in the Middle West, in the region of the Great Lakes, around Detroit and Chicago, in the north-eastern states and near Birmingham. The automobile industry and all kinds of machine-building are highly developed especially in and near Detroit, in California and in the areas of heavy industry. Ship-building is developed along the Atlantic coast and also in San-Francisco and Seattle on the Pacific coast. The textile industry is concentrated in the north-east, in Boston and other cities; but it is especially well developed in the South, where much cotton is grown, in the Mississippi valley.

The USA has a highly developed railway system. It also has the best system of roads in the world. The Great Lakes and the rivers, especially the Saint Lawrence River and the Mississippi, are used for transport. In recent years the growth of air traffic has been observed.

American agriculture produces more food products than any other country. Much of them are exported. The USA produces 52 per cent or more of the world’s corn, soy-beans, edible vegetable oils, wheat, tobacco, rice, cotton, and barley. Animal husbandry is also developed in the country.

The US harvests a lot of vegetables such as tomatoes, potatoes and onions. Arizona, Florida, California and Texas are the major citrus-producing states. They grow oranges, tangerines, grapefruit, lemons. Strawberries and apples are also produced.

The highlands in the west of the country are famous for their cattle-farming. Poultry-farming and vegetable-growing are concentrated in the country-side near all the big cities.

Vocabulary

To owe smth to [ou] – быть обязанным чем-либо

Copper ['kop∂ ] – медь

Lead [led] – свинец

Potash ['potæ ∫ ] – поташ, углекислый калий

Petroleum [pi'troulj∂ m] – нефть

Non-ferrous – цветные металлы

Raw materials – сырье

Soy-beans – соя, соевые бобы

Edible vegetable oils ['edibl] – пищевые растительные масла

Barley – ячмень

Animal husbandry – животноводство





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