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Exercise 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.




Table of contents

Part II. SYNTAX1

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 1

WORD ORDER 11

THE COMPOUND AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 15

SEQUENCE OF TENSES 24

INDIRECT SPEECH 25

 

Part II. SYNTAX

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

Exercise 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.

Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by, "Is this Mrs. Scott's house?" and the woman, smiling queerly, said, "It is, my lass." Oh, to be away from this! She actually said, "Help me God!" as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in anything, one of those women's shawls even! I'll just leave the basket and go, she decided. I shan't even wait for it to be emptied.

Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom.

Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?" But to her horror the woman answered, "Walk in, please, miss," arid she was shut in the passage. "No," said Laura, "I don't want to come in. I only want to leave this basket."

The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. "Step this way, please, miss," she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her. (Mansfield)

Exercise 2. Define the type of question

1. "Who is he?" I said. "And why does he sit always alone, with his back to us too?" (Mansfield) 2. "Did she have a chill?" he asked, his eyes upon the floor. (Cronin) 3. You have Mr. Eden's address, haven't you, Mr. Ends? (London) 4. Is literature less human than the architecture and sculpture of Egypt? (London) 5. We shall be having some sort of celebration for the bride, shan't we, Mr. Crawley? (Du Maurier) 6. "Can I see the manager?" I said, and added politely, "alone." (Leacock) 7. When had the carriage been back from taking Miss June to the station? (Galsworthy) 8. What is the meaning of that? She is going to live in the house, isn't she? (Galsworthy) 9. He couldn't understand what Irene found wrong with him: it was not as if he drank. Did he run into debt, or gamble or swear? (Galsworthy) 10. Were you talking about the house? I haven't seen it yet, you know. Shall we all go on Sunday? (Galsworthy) 11. Don't you realize it's quite against the rules to have him. (Cronin) 12. How will you carry the bill into effect? Can you commit a whole country to their own prisons? (Byron)

Exercise 3. Point out two-member sentences (say whether they are complete or elliptical) and one-member sentences.

1. He stared amazed at the calmness of her answer. (Galsworthy) 2. We must go to meet the bus. Wouldn't do to miss it. (Cronin) 3. Obedient little trees, fulfilling their duty. (Kahler) 4. Lucretius knew very little about what was going on in the world. Lived like a mole in a burrow. Lived on his own fat like a bearin winter. (Douglas) 5. He wants to write a play for me. One act. One man. Decides to commit suicide. (Mansfield) 6. A beautiful day, quite warm. (Galsworthy) 7. "What do you want?" "Bandages, stuff for wounded." (Heym) 8. "How did he look?" "Grey but otherwise much the same." "And the daughter?" "Pretty." (Galsworthy) 9. And then the silence and the beauty of this camp at night. The stars. The mystic shadow water. The wonder and glory of all this. (Dreiser) 10. "I'll see nobody for half an hour, Macey," said the boss. "Understand? Nobody at all." (Mansfield) 11. "Mother, a man's been killed." "Not in the garden?" interrupted her mother. (Mansfield) 12. Garden at the Manor House. A flight of grey stone steps leads up to the house. The garden, an old-fashioned one, full of roses. Time of year, July. Basket chairs, and a table covered with books, are set under a large yewtree. (Wilde)

Exercise 4. Point out the subject and say by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian.

1. At that moment the postman, looking like a German army officer, came in with the mail. (Mansfield) 2. The clock struck eight. There was no sign of any of the other guests. (Huxley) 3. Now, there is something peculiarly intimate in sharing an umbrella. (Mansfield) 4. Together we walked through the mud and slush. (Mansfield) 5. Something impersonal and humble in that action seemed to reassure the Consul. (Cronin) 6. The sight of them, so intent and so quick, gave Bertha a curious shiver. (Mansflied) 7. Eight o'clock in the morning. Miss Ada Moss lay in a black iron bedstead, staring up at the ceiling. (Mansfield) 8. Still, the good of mankind was worth working for. (Galsworthy) 9. Sometimes the past injects itself into the present with a peculiar force. (Heym) 10. Forgetting some things is a difficult matter. (Voynich) 11. To cross from one end to the other was difficult because of the water. (Heym) 12. "A person doesn't have to be rich to be clean," Charles said. (Braine) 13. There was an eagerness and excitement in the faces of the men. (Heym) 14....and Timothy's was but one of hundreds of such homes in this City of London... (Galsworthy) 15. Let's get out quick. It's no good wasting time. (Maugham) 16. "Very well," said Soames, "then we know where we are." (Galsworthy) 17. Now, to go through a stormy night and with wet clothes, and, in addition, to be ill nourished and not to have tasted meat for a week or a month, is about as severe a hardship as a man can undergo. (London) 18. She did not know. The "No" was stronger than her craving to be in Frisco's arms and forget this dreary existence. (Prichard) 19. The mining industry might make wealth and power for a few men and women. But the many would always be smashed and battered beneath its giant treads. (Prichard) 20. Yes, that did sound rather far-fetched and absurd. (Mansfield) 21. This, of course, in her present mood, was so incredibly beautiful... She began to laugh. (Mansfield) 22. To live on good terms with people one must share their work and interests. (Prichard) 23. These three deemed themselves the queens of the school. (Ch. Bronte) 24. Who were these people? What are they? (Galsworthy) 25. His was the harsh world of reality. No one could walk around his drawing. (Stone) 26. Governing the district of Cremmen wasn't turning out to be an easy and pleasant job. (Heym) 27. The firing increased in volume. (Heym) 28. High and low all made fun of him. (Thackeray) 29. For a woman to look at her best is a point of discipline. (James) 30. Your coming home has made me as foolish as a young girl of nineteen. (Abrahams) 31. And now his heir and nephew, Thomas Esmond, began to bid for his uncle's favour. (Thackeray)

Exercise 5. State the nature of it. Translate into Russian.

1. It was dusky in the dining-room and quite chilly. (Mansfield) 2 The bell rang. It was lean, pale Eddie Warren in a state of acute distress. (Mansfield) 3. Oh! Ohl Oh! It was a little house. It was a little pink house. (Mansfield) 4. But in her bosom there was still that bright glowing place. It was almost unbearable. (Mansfield) 5. She sat up, but she felt quite dizzy, quite drunk. It must have been the spring. (Mansfield) 6. It was marvellous to be made love to like that. (Prichard) 7. It is the moon that makes you talk to yourself in that silly way. (Shaw) 8. It is very distressing to me, Sir, to give this information. (Dickens) 9. He took the path through the fields: it was pleasanter than the road. (Huxley) 10. If this is liberty, it isn't going to mean a thing. (Heym) 11. It was now almost four-thirty in the afternoon. (Dreiser) 12. I took a good room. It was very big and light and looked out on the lake. (Hemingway)

Exercise 8. Say where the reflexive pronoun is part of the predicate and where it is an object or a predicative.

1. On my estate, we pride ourselves on other things besides hay. (Erskine) 2. She paused, her eyes never leaving my face. "I shall always blame myself for the accident." (Du Maurier) 3. She raised herself suddenly in the tall chair, and looked straight at him. (Erskine) 4. Dick found himself walking in the direction of his friend Mike's place. (Lindsay) 5. It was a Tuesday. My lady wasn't quite herself that afternoon. (Mansfield) 6. He felt himself j unusually on edge, unable to maintain the impersonally smug tone of Stephenson. (Lindsay) 7. Mrs. Danvers showed herself at last. (Du Maurier)

WORD ORDER

THE COMPOUND AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

INDIRECT SPEECH

Table of contents

Part II. SYNTAX1

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 1

WORD ORDER 11

THE COMPOUND AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 15

SEQUENCE OF TENSES 24

INDIRECT SPEECH 25

 

Part II. SYNTAX

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

Exercise 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.

Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by, "Is this Mrs. Scott's house?" and the woman, smiling queerly, said, "It is, my lass." Oh, to be away from this! She actually said, "Help me God!" as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in anything, one of those women's shawls even! I'll just leave the basket and go, she decided. I shan't even wait for it to be emptied.

Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom.

Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?" But to her horror the woman answered, "Walk in, please, miss," arid she was shut in the passage. "No," said Laura, "I don't want to come in. I only want to leave this basket."

The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. "Step this way, please, miss," she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her. (Mansfield)





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