Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
VI. Найдите и переведите предложения в Present Perfect Tense, в Passive Voice .
1. Stradford, the birthplace of William Shakespeare, is a very interesting town, right in the centre of England .Stradford – upon – Avon possesses a peculiar English character, derived from it, unique heritage of natural setting history and literary associations. Year by year the fame of its long established Shakespeare Festivals spreads as increasing number of visitors from all parts of the world come to enjoy the plays of the greatest dramatist of all times in the setting of his native town.
2. Originating as a river – crossing settlement, Stradford – upon Avon has served as the market centre of the surrounding countryside since 1196. Stradford is quite a busy town, especially on market day when the farmers from the countryside round Stradford come to buy or sell cows or pigs or sheep. Since 1553 Stradford has remained a self-governing borough.
3. Apart from Shakespeare, present day Stradford has small light industries, such as beer-brewing, fruit-canning, the making of wad sings and aluminium goods; various crafts and trades which are associated with agriculture and marked gardening; the farmer’s insurance business.
4. Stradford is a town with a character and atmosphere of its own. Apart from the beauty of its river – the winding Avon – and lovely houses, black and white with thatched roofs, its streets and buildings preserve many links with its interesting past. Most famous are the properties and gardens associated with Shakespeare and his family which are preserved as a memorial to the poet.
5. The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre is the centre of the Avon, the brick-built theatre was erected in 1932 to the design of miss Elizabeth Scott to replace an earlier theatre which was destroyed by the fire. It is without doubt one of the best equipped theatres and its Shakespearean productions attract an international audience.
6. Shakespeare’s statue stands on the Bancroft, commanding the approach to Stradford from Clopton Bridge which with its fourteen arches was build at the end of the fifteenth century by Hugh Clopton, native of the town . The statue of the bard with its figures of Hamlet, Lady Macbeth, Falstaff and Prince Hall* is imposing, indeed.
7. The House in Henley Street where Shakespeare was born in 1564 and spent his early years is a half-timbered building* of a type common in Elizabethan Stradford.
· Prince Hall – Prince Henry, the future King Henry VI.
· Half – timbered building – a building having walls made of timber France with spaces filled with other material (e.g. with masonry or plaster). Property has undergone some careful restoration, its essential features remain unchanged. The interior of Shakespeare’s Birthplace contains many features of unusual interest. The poet’s birthroom on the first floor is a fascinating room with a low, uneven ceiling and is furnished after the pattern of a middle-class home such as the Shakespeare family occupied.
Lots of people who had visited the houses had written their names on the walls, among the names were Walter Scott, Dickens, Thackeray and others.
I. Прочитайте первый абзац текста и ответьте на вопросы:
1. What gives Stradford –upon – Anon a typically English character ?
2. Why does Stradford attract such an increasing attention of visitors from all over the world ?
II. Прочитайте 2 и 3 абзаца текста и ответьте, какие из предложенных утверждений соответствуют содержанию:
3. Stradford is known only as a birthplace of great Shakespeare.
4. Stradford is a busy town with its small light industries.
5. Since 1553 Stradford has remained a self-governing borough.
III. В 1 абзаце найдите прилагательное в превосходной степени.
IV. Какое существительное во 2 абзаце во множественном числе не изменяет свою форму ?
V. В каком предложении в 6 абзаце употреблен пассивный залог ?
HIGHER EDUCATION IN BRITAIN.
1.The typical academic programme for university students in Great Britain is composed of a varying number of courses or subjects. The academic obligation for each subject fall into three broad types. Lectures, at which attendance is not always compulsory, often outline the general score of the subject matter and stress the particular specialisation of the lecturer. Tutorials, through individual or group discussion, reading extensively, and writing essays under the tutor's direction, ensure focused and in depth understanding of the subject.
2.Examinations on each subject require the students to consolidate his knowledge of the subject, which he has gained through lectures, discussions and a great deal of independent study. These three categories of academic activity-lectures, tutorials and examinations-provide the means by which students prepare themselves in specialised fields of knowledge in British universities.
3.The course of study at a university* lasts three or four years. In general Bachelor's degree, the first academic degree, is given to the students who pass their examination at the end of the course: Bachelor of arts, for history, philosophy, language and literature, etc. Bachelor of Science or Commerce or Music.
4.In 1971 the Open University was set up for the people who do not have time or the qualifications to study at a conventional University. The students of the Open University need to study about ten hours a week, to write essays and to prepare for exams. There are weekly Open University lectures broadcast on ВВС television and radio. The final work is based on the exam and the written assignments done during the year. It takes six (or eight) years to get a degree. One who gets a degree may have a better job, higher pay or post-graduate studies. Some universities have extra-mural departments.
5. Besides universities there are 30 polytechnics, numerous colleges for more specialised needs, such as agriculture, accountancy, art and design and law, a few hundred technical colleges providing part-time and full-time education. It is common for" students to leave home to study, and only 15% of all university students live at home while they study.
1.apart from - кроме.
2.part - time education - вечерняя форма обучения.
3.full - time education - дневная форма обучения.
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What forms of academic activities are there?
2. How long does the course of study last?
3. What is the first academic degree?
4. For whom was the Open University set up?
5. What other types of educational establishments are there?
II. Say whether the following statements are true according to the text:
1. Students must attend all lectures.
2. Students gain their knowledge through lectures, discussions and independent study.
3. Тhе course of study at the Open University lasts 6-8 years.
4. Most university students live at home while they study.
III. Задайте вопросы к имеющимся ответам.
1. Tutorials ensure in-depth understanding of the subject.
2. Bachelor's degree is given to the students who pass their examinations.
3. The Open University was set up in 1971.
4. Besides universities there are numerous colleges for more specialised needs.
IV. Закончите предложения:
1. There are weekly Open University lectures...
2. It takes six or eight years...
З. Оnе who gets a degree way have... .
1. Oxford is one of the world known centres of education and learning in Britain. It is not modern city. When we walk alone it’s clean streets we see at once that this is an ancient town. It is about eight hundred years old.
2. There are buildings of different architectural styles there? But there is no contrast in their size and material, because nearly all of them are built of the same soft grey limestone and have the same arrangement.
3. There are many students in the streets in their traditional black gowns. At Oxford University no students may call on a tutor or attend a lecture without his or her gown, therefore the students wear them in all weather, or carry them over arm or shoulder.
4. A British university consists of a number of colleges. The lectures and examinations for the whole body of students are arranged by the university authorities. The colleges provide for residence and tutoring which means personal instruction of the students by the Don.
5. A Don is a college instructor who directs the studies of undergraduates, not more then four in number at a time.
6. The tutorial system of education has many advantages. The tutor is a great help to his students: he decides what lectures he must attend, recommends them books for reading, discusses and criticises their written work and knows all about their discipline inside and outside the college. The disadvantage lies in the fact that there are many tutors with a reactionary outlook foreign way of thinking of the young generation. By means of personal contact the tutor may influence the political and social ideas of the students over his control.
7. How do the undergraduates live at Oxford? There are resident and non-resident students living in lodgings which are inspected by thecollege administration.
8. Let us go up the narrow- old wooden staircase at St. John's College, along a corridor and look into a room for 2 students.
9. Both of them, as the majority of the students body, are sons of rich parents. Years ago both their fathers and grandfathers studied at the same college and occupied the same room. Now their sons and grandsons live there, spend as much time on sport, wine and pleasure as their fathers did, and are members of the same club.
10. Since the boys are out we can have a good look at their lodging. The room is square, smallish but cosy. There is a table, 2 or 3 chairs, a pair of armchairs and a bookcase full of books. The floor is covered with a soft carpet. On the wall there are pictures, landscapes and family photographs. A bright fire is burning in the fireplace. In one corner there stands some sports equipment.
11. At all British Universities there are good sporting grounds for jumping, boxing, skating, running, playing football, golf and others games; but since the colleges don't provide the students with sports equipment sport is the privilege only of the rich who have means for buying all that is necessary for any kind of sport.
12. Our next visit was to the residence of one of the poorer young men who belongs to the minority of the student body. He is a non-resident student, the son of a small bookkeeper. His parents belong to the average English people with average means. Since the cost of study at Oxford is very high they can give their son a full higher education only at the cost of strict economy in personal comfort and pleasure. The boy lives in lodgings. His room is not so comfortable and cosy as that of the richer students: it is smaller in size and pleasure. The boy lives in lodgings. His room is not so comfortable and cosy as that of the richer students: it is smaller in size and quite plain: there are no armchairs here; no carpet, no pictures, no sports equipment. The boy is one of the lucky ones; since his work is above the average he receives a stipend from the education committee of his home-town and all the study opportunities of an Oxford student. At the end of the year he will graduate from the University and have to earn his living. But getting employment is often a difficult problem even for Oxford graduates. The cause is that unemployment is increasing; one can't choose a job according to one's qualification. Architects, doctors, lawyers, humanists are often unemployed for, months; they are ready to accept any job at any salary: playing in a jazz band; selling cinema tickets, working at a restaurant. Such are the conditions of study at Oxford, which make progressive students struggle for a truly democratic education system.
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What is Oxford?
2. what is traditional dress of Oxford students?
3. where must the students wear their gowns: inside or outside the college?
4. whom do you call a Don?
5. where do the students live?
II. Определите правильны или неправильны утверждения:
I. Where are many students in the streets in their grey gowns.
2. Oxford is a modern city.
3. There are only resident students at Oxford University.
4. The rooms for living are not- cosy.
III. Закончите предложения
1. All British Universities have good ...
2. At Oxford no student may ...
3. The tutor is ...
IV. Найдите и переведите предложения:
1. В страдательном залоге
2. С модальными глаголами
V. Докажите, что студенты в Оксфорде могут заниматься спортом.
VI. Запомните следующие слова
1) equipmentt 3) pleasure 5) generation
2) necessary 4) narrow 6) unemployment
POST - GRADUATE RESEARCH WORK AND DEGREE IN BRITAIN.
1.The undergraduate Course of studies at English universities is completed when students are ready to take their degree examinations. After graduating they obtain the first academic degree or distinction of a Bachelor of arts, depending on satisfactory examinations results. Bachelor's degrees are at two levels, Honours and Pass-Honours degrees are first, second or third class, and usually only about 5 percent of the students are placed in the first class. Those that have a bent for research work may apply for an advanced course of study extending over not less than two academic, years for full-time post-graduates and not less than three academic years for part-time graduate students.
2.The first post graduate degree is normally than of Master, conferred for a thesis based on one or two year's full-time work. In a few of the biggest universities there are some seminars for post-graduate students, but usually there are no regular courses for them. In most universities it is only at the science faculties that any large numbers of students stay to do post-graduate work.
3.Every post-graduate working on a research problem is provided with an advisor and referees for the refereeing and evaluation of his thesis.
4. On completing his course of study every candidate must submit a thesis. He is also required to for ward a short abstract of his thesis comprising not more than 300 words.
5. If the thesis is satisfactory on all points, the candidate will be awarded the degree and will continue his work in the academic field.
6.Everywhere the degree of Doctor is given for a thesis which is considered to be an original contribution to knowledge.
1.the undergraduate course - последний год обучения в университете.
2.degree examination - экзамен на степень.
3.Honour degree - степень с отличием.
4.Pass degree - степень без отличия
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What is the first academic degree?
2. Who may apply for an advanced course of study?
3. What is the first post - graduate degree conferred for?
4. Who is provided with an adviser andreferees?
5. What is the degree of Doctor given for?
II. Определите, правильны или неправильны следующие утверждения:
1. The undergraduate course of studies is completed by taking degree examinations.
2. Pass degrees are at two levels.
3. Post-graduate students take regular courses at the universities.
4. Referees evaluate a post - graduate'sthesis.
III. Задайте вопросы к имеющимся ответам.:
1. Bachelor's degrees are at two levels.
2. The first post - graduatedegree is normally that of Master.3.0n completing his course ofstudies every candidate must submit athesis.
IV. Закончите предложения:
1. After graduating the students obtain the first academic degree depending on ...
2. Those who want to do research apply ... .
3. 0n completing the course of study every candidate ....
V. Найдите предложения в тексте в страдательном залоге и переведите их на русский язык.
SCIENCE IN BRITAIN
1. Learned societies and independent scientific institutes play a large part in promoting the sciences in Britain, although they do very little actual research.
2. Most pure research is conducted in the universities, which also play an essential part in maintaining the supply of trained specialists. The learned societies play an important part in the discussion and publication of the results of research.
3. During the recent years there has been a considerable expansion of scientific and technological training and research within the universities. Most universities have the departments of engineering, some of them including chemical, aeronautical and production engineering. Universities in industrial centres have long been known for studies relating to their local industries. All universities and university colleges have laboratories or research departments.
4. The traditional method of scientific publication, in which results are written in papers and published in journals, is still the main means communication among scientists. The leading learned societies have for long been important agencies for communicating scientific information. The most eminent of the learned societies are:
5. The Royal Society Which was founded in 1660. Its present activities include the holding of the scientific meetings, publication of research work, mainly in the "Philosophical Transactions" and the "Proceedings", the delivery of lectures, the presentations of medals. Although an independent corporation, the Society has always had a special relationship with the government.
6. The Royal Society of Arts which was founded in 1-754. Its principal object has been to promote the progress of all departments of science. It. deals with scientific, artistic, technical, industrial and commercial problems. The Society regularly holds meetings and publishes a monthly journal.
7. The British Association for the advancement of Science which was founded in 1831 to promote general interest in science and its application. One of its chief activities is the annual meetings attended by many young students as well as by eminent scientists. Its 14 sections cover the whole range of pure and applied sciences and there is a division for studying the social and international relations of science.
1. learned societies - научные общества
2. production engineering - организация производственного процесса
3. human sciences - гуманитарныенауки
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What part do learned societies play?
2. What departments have most Universities?
3. Is pure research conducted in the Universities?
4. What is the main means of communicating among scientists?
5. What are most eminent learned societies?
II. Какие глаголы используются для описания деятельности Royal Society of Arts? (to found, to promote, to deal with, to hold, to publish)
III. Определите, правильны или неправильны следующие утверждения:
1. Learned societies carry out a lot of research work. 2. The Universities train specialists and do research in pure science.
3. At present all universities have the departments of engineering.
4. Scientific papers and journals are the main means of communicating scientific information.
IV. Подтвердите важность Royal Society В обмене научной информации.
V. Задайте вопросы к имеющимся ответам:
1. All Universities have laboratories and research departments.
2. The Royal Society was founded in 1660.
3. The Society regularly holds meetings and publishes a monthly journal.
VI. Закончите предложения.
1. University in industrial centres conduct studies relating...
2. The results of research are written in papers and...
3. The most eminent of the learned societies are... Royal Society of Acts - Королевское общество покровительства искусствам
British Association for the advancement of science - Гор. Ассоциация по распространению научных знаний.
TELEVISION AND RADIO.
Various radio and television programs are presented by the BBS. There are four separate radio channels, each of which specialises. Radio broadcasts mainly pop music, Radio2 provides light music, comedy programs, sports; Radio3 offers serious music, talk on serious subjects and plays of a classical nature; Radio4 concentrates on the spoken word – i.e. talks and discussions, plays, etc . The BBChas opened local, radio station in a number of large cities and towns. The BBC also broadcasts special programs about Britain – in fifty different languages as well as inEnglish – to all parts of the world.
The BBC has two television channels: BBC1 and BBC2. BBC2 provides a more serious alternative to BBC1, although it also shows films and some comedies. Usually, the same BBC television programs are seen all over the country, but there are a few various for local interest. Radio and television programs are given in the BBC magazine the Radio Times. There is also a weekly magazine, The Listener, in which outstanding talks are published.
There are fifteen different program companies, each serving a different part of the country. The present ITV (Independent Television). These companies are supported by firms who use them for advertising. ITV programs are interrupted at regular intervals by advertisers. The weekly magazine, TV times, advertises all ITV programs.
Announcing in television is part of what is called “Presentation”, the department which presents programs. Announcings are necessary because with out them television would proceed in a series of disconnected jars.
What is the right personality? There are several obvious answers. A good appearance is naturally of the first importance. This does not mean good looks alone. The first assets are in attractive face and a reasonably good figure in a woman, and, in a man, the ability to hold himself will. Next comes intelligence. It includes first a good understanding of the language, and a very large measure of common sense. You must also have a good memory.
Next to appearance and intelligence you should have a friendly, likeable manner, not over friendly or with any hint of that detestable chumminess which is the stamp of insincerity. The right kind of voice is important. It must be pleasant, yet have sufficient quiet authority to make the viewer listen to that being said. You are there as an announcer to convey information and to get the viewer to listen to information and to get the viewer to listen to it. “Confidence” is perhaps a better world then “authority” in this connection and it is linked with the most important thing of all – the ability to be posed and at else before the cameras. If you have this gift by nature, you are fortunate: not too many possess it. The majority of people are self – conscious or become so when they face a microphone or camera.
Задание к тексту.
Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What corporation presents radio and television programs in Great Britain ?
2. What are the functions of the separate radio channels ?
3. What language does BBC broadcast ?
4. How many television channels has the BBC ?
5. What are the functioned of BBC1 and BBC2 ?
6. In what magazine are there radio and television programs ?
7. Where are outstanding talks published ?
8. How many program companies are there? What are they called ?
9. Do these companies use advertising in their programs ?
10. Why are announcers necessary ?
11. What are the requirements to the announcers ?
It has been claimed that the British read more newspapers than any other people in the western world. More than thirty million copies of newspapers are printed in the country every day.
National newspapers are sold throughout the United Kingdom. They all have their head office is London and are usually classed as either “quality” or “popular” papers. The quality papers (dailies: The Times, Guardian, Daily Telegraph; Sunday papers: Sunday Times, Observer, Sunday Telegraph) aim to inform their readers as widely as possible about national and international news. The popular papers try to attract more general readers, with pictures and sensational stories.
Many big cities have evening papers which give the latest news. London has The Evening Standard.
There are nearly 5000 periodicals published in the United Kingdom. The re are magazine and periodicals for almost every trade profession, sport, hobby or interest. The most important periodicals for more serious readers are: The Economist, which comments on events of international, political or economic interest: The Spectator, journal with conservative news, which publishes articles on many different subjects, including politics; Tribune,containing political articles and sociological reviews; New Society,which has long articles on social matters; New Scientist, which reports on scientific matters in language that non-specialist can understand; Punch, a long-established humorous magazine also has serious articles. The Timespublishes separately a weekly Educational Supplement, Higher Educational Supplementand Literary Supplement.
The newspapers are considered to be “independent“. Only one national newspaper, The Morning Star,is the official mouthpiece of a political party, the Communist Party of Great Britain. The other papers support a political party, unofficially. The quality papers, the Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph support the Conservatives. The Daily Mail and Daily Expressare usually conservative in sympathy. The Daily Mirror and the Sunsupport the Labor Party.
One of the most famous highways of the city, Fleet Street is often called the centre of the newspaper industry. It was known in the early 13-th century as Fleet Bridge Street; its west side was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. Many famous lanes and streets ran into Fleet Street. The street was noted for its coffee-houses and taverns and for the famous literary men living and working in it. Outstanding among these were Samuel Johnson, Ben Johnson, John Milton, Charles Lamb and Oliver Goldsmith. Among the publications associated with Fleet Street are Punch, the Daily News, the Daily Telegraph, the Evening Standard. During the 18-th and 19-th centuries it became the headquarters of publishers and is still the journalistic street of London.
The street and the immediate area are dominated by the offices of daily and provincial newspapers and all their related associations.
Ответьте на вопросы:
1. How many newspapers are published in Great Britain every day ?
2. What is the difference between the “popular“ papers and the “quality“ papers ?
3. What “popular“ papers are famous in Great Britain ?
4. What do “popular” papers deal with ?
5. Which magazines are for trade profession, sport, hobby or interest ?
6. What kinds of magazine and periodicals are there in Great Britain ?
7. What does “The Times “ publish ?
8. What is the centre of the newspaper industry ?
9. What famous people lived in Fleet Street ?
10. What publications are associated with Fleet Street ?
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL
l. James Clerk Maxwell, the great physicist and mathematician, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on November 13, 1831.
2. After school he entered the University of that city. Then he attended the University of Cambridge and graduated from it in 1854. When at the University Maxwell took great interest in mathematics and optics.
3. For two years after the University he lectured, made experiments in optics at Trinity College and studied much himself.
4. In 1871 Maxwell became professor of natural philosophy and in 1860 professor of physics and astronomy at King's College, London. In London he lived for 5years. Here he saw Faraday for the first time.
5. In 1871 Maxwell became professor of experimental physics at Cambridge. At that time students could not even have such subjects as electricity or magnetism as there was no laboratory for the study of there subjects. Maxwell organised such a laboratory which made Cambridge world-known.
6. This was a very fruitful period of Maxwell's life. He studied the problems of electromagnetism, molecular physics, optics, mechanics and other.
7. Maxwell wrote his first scientific work when he was fifteen. Since that time he wrote a great number of works which weretheresults of his experiments and calculations.
8. His most outstanding investigations, however, are in the field of the kinetic theory of gases and electricity. Maxwell is the founder of the electromagnetic field (side by side with Faraday) and the electromagnetic theory of light. In 1873 he published his famous work on electricity and magnetism. During these years he also wrote his classification "Matter and Motion", a small book on a great subject, and many articles on various subjects ("Atoms", "Attraction" "faraday" and others).
9. Maxwell's works on the kinetic theory of gases, the theory of heat, dynamics and the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism are monuments to his great genius.
1. for the first time - впервые, в первый раз
2. world-known - всемирно известный
3. side by side with - наряду с
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. When and where was J.C.Maxwell born?
2. Where did he study?
3. What did he do after graduating from the University?
4. What was a very fruitful period of Maxwell's life?
5. What are his most important works?
II. Определите, правильны или неправильны следующие выражения
1. After school Maxwell entered the University of Cambridge.
2. He became professor of natural philosophy at Trinity College.
3. Maxwell organised a laboratory for the study of electricity and magnetism.
4. His most famous work was published in the early 1870s.
III. Задайте вопросы к имеющимся ответам
1. He studied the problems of electromagnetism, molecular phisics and others.
2. Maxwell wrote his first work when he was fifteen.
3. Maxwell is the founder of the electromagnetic theory of light.
4. During these years he wrote many articles on various subjects.
IV. Закончите предложения:
1. He attended the University of Cambridge and graduated from it...
2. When at the University Maxwell took great...."
3. He wrote a great number of works which were the results... .
V. Докажите, что 1871 был очень плодотворным периодом для Максвелла.
HENRY CAVENDISH AND HIS DISCOVERY
Henry Cavendish was born in 1731 and died in 1810. He was an English nobleman who did scientific experiments as a hobby. In 1781 he made the important discovery that water is not an element but a compound of the gases we now call hydrogen and oxygen. He described his experiments to the Royal Society in 1785.
His method was new. He showed that if electric sparks are passed through a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen the two gases combine explosively and form water. This was a dangerous experiment. Cavendish did his experiment safely; he wisely used a strong brass container for the gases. He also passed electric sparks through air and found that gases which readily dissolve in water form acids. We explain this reaction today as follows: oxygen and, nitrogen combine and oxides of nitrogen.
Cavendish also noticed that air contained a small proportion of a gas which did not combine with any other gas even if we pass electric sparks through it for a long time. Now we think that this gas was probably argon, one of the inert gases. It was rediscovered many years later.
1) if electric sparks are passed - если пропускать электрические искры (разряды)
2) explosively - со взрывом
I. Определите часть речи следующих слов и переведите их на русский язык.
Science, scientific, scientist; England, English, Englishman; cover, discover, rediscover, discovery, discoverer; important, importance;
Element, elementary; react, reaction, reactor, reactivity; electric, electrical, electricity; mix, mixture; danger, dangerous; fame, famous; contain, container; man, nobleman (noble-благородный), gentleman, workman.
II. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующим словам:
experiment, element, gas, hydrogen, oxygen, method, container, hobby, reaction, proportion, argon, inert.
III. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) Chemistry is my hobby.
2) Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen.
3) Tell about your future profession, please.
4) Pass me the salt, please.
5) He passed by without saying a word.
6) At the evening technical school students combine work and study.
7) Solve this problem, please.
8) Dissolve some salt in water.
IV. Просмотрите текст, ответьте на вопросы:
1) What was Henry Cavendish?
2) When and where did Cavendish live?
3) What did Cavendish discover?
4) Is water an element?
5) How did Cavendish prove that water is a compound?
FATHER OF OUR COUNTRY
"George Washington (1732-1799) won a lasting place in American History as the "Father of our country". For nearly twenty years he guided his country much as a father cares for a growing child."
In three important ways, Washington helped shape the beginning of United States. First, he commanded the Continental Army that won American independence from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War. Second, Washington served as president of the convention that wrote the United States Constitution. Third, he was elected the first President of the United States.
The people of his day loved Washington. His army officers would have made him king if he had let them. From the Revolutionary War on, his birthday was celebrated each year throughout the Country.
Washington lived an exciting life in exciting times. As a boy, he explored the wilderness. When he grew older, he helped the British fight the French and Indians. Many times he was nearly killed. As a general he suffered hardships with his troops in the cold winters. He lost many battles, but led the American Army to final victory. After he became President, he successfully solved many problems in turning the plans of the Constitution into a working government.
Washington went to school only until he was about 14 or 15. But he learned to make the most of all his abilities and opportunities. Washington's remarkable patience and his understanding of others helped him win people to his side in times ox hardship and discouragement.
Washington; s appearance caused admiration and respect. He was tall, strong, and broad-shouldered. As he grew older cares lined his face and gave him a somewhat stern appearance. He had a large and straight rather than a prominent nose; blue-grey penetrating eyes; dark brown hair which he wore in a queue. His movements and gestures were graceful, his walk majestic. Washington set his own strict rules of conduct, but he also enjoyed having a good time. He laughed at jokes, though he seldom told any.
Perhaps the strongest feature in his character was prudence, never acting until every circumstance, every consideration was maturely weighed; refraining when he saw a doubt, but, when once decided, going through with his purpose whatever obstacles opposed. "He was indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good and a great man" wrote Thomas Jefferson.
Washington belonged to an old colonial family that believed in hard work, in public service and in worshipping God. George Washington was born in Westmoreland county, Va., on a farm, later known as Wake, field, on February 22. 1732. His first American ancestor came to Virginia from England in 1657. Farming, land buying, trading, milling, and the iron industry were means by which the family rose in the world.
George's father, Augustine, had four children by his first wife and six by his second wife, Mary Ball, George's mother.
Of George's early life little is known. His formal education was slight: no more than 7 or 8 years of school. Men, plantation life and the haunts of river, field, and forest were his principle teachers.
Augustine died when George was 11, leaving several farms. Ferry farm went to George when he reached 21. His favourite subject was arithmetic. He studied enough history and geography to know something of the outside world. But he never learned as much about literature, foreign languages and history as did Thomas Jefferson or James Medison.
At the age of 14 he began work as a surveyor, making many trips into the wilderness areas of Virginia and Pennsylvania. His first military experience came in the French and Indian War (1754-63), when he was sent on two missions deep into the Ohio county. The War estranged Washington from the British. Thereafter, he never expressed a feeling of affection for them.
Washington retired to Mount Vernon which he inherited after his brother's death. In 1759 he married Martha Dandridge, a widow. Her first husband had left her a fortune of about 17.000 acres (6.880 hectares) of land, 150 slaves and $360.000. Washington became a loving stepfather to Martha's two children. He and Martha had no children of their own.
As a planter, Washington concentrated at first on tobacco raising. He sооn learned that it did not pay. He developed a fishery, increased his production of wheat, and operated a mill. He was a progressive farmer.
In 1760's the American colonists grew angrier and angrier at the taxes placed on them by Great Britain. In September 1771 the Continental Congress met, where Washington had his first chance to meet and talk with leaders of other colonies. The members were impressed with his judgement and military knowledge. He was sent to attend the Second Continental Congress (1775) where he was elected a commander in chief of the Continental Army. He proved himself a capable commander of the War of Independence.
In 1787 Washington was unanimously chosen president of the Continental Convention and later overwhelmingly elected first president of the republic (1789), followed by re-election (1792). In his two terms he established innumerable precedents and left a permanent stamp on the office of the presidency.
George Washington died after an illness of two days on Dec.14, 1799. He went for his daily horseback ride around Mount Vernon. The day was cold with snow turning into rain and sleet. Washington returned after five hours and sat down to dinner without changing his damp clothes. The next day he awoke with a sore throat. He went for a walk. In the afternoon he had difficulty speaking and was quite ill. The illness was "inflammatory quinsy". He was bled thrice. At 10 p.m. on December 14, Washington whispered: "I am going. Have me decently buried, and do not let my body be put in the vault in less than two days after I am dead." Then he died.
No other American has been honoured 'more than Washington. The nation's capital, Washington D.C., was named after him. There the giant Washington Monument stands. The state of Washington is the only state named after a President. Many cities, parks, streets, bridges, lakes, and schools bear his name. Washington's portrait appears on postage stamps, on the $1 bill, and on the quarter.
I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. When did Georqe begin to work?
2. when did he retire?
3. What happened in 1775?
4. When did he die?
5. Is there the state named alter Washington?
II. Определите, правильны или неправильны утверждения
1. He didn't study history.
2. He married in 1750.
3. George's wile had 2 children.
4. The state of Washington is the only one named after a President.
III. Какие глаголы используются для описания работы на плантации?
IV. Найдите тексте омонимы следующих слов:
1) there 3) too 5) no
2) inn 4) eye
V. Задайте вопросы к следующим ответам
а. His favourite subject was arithmetic
b. He was a progressive farmer
c. He went for his daily horseback ride
d. Many cities, parks, streets bear his home
VI. Закончите предложения:
1. The members were impressed...
2. He developed a fishery...
3. But he never learned...
VII. Найдите предложения в страдательном залоге в последнем абзаце.
VIII. Запомните следующие слова:
1) ancestor 3) fortune 5) stepfather
2) quinsy 4) tax 6) to elect
1. The Chicago flag consists of four red stars and two blue stripes on a white background. The stars commemorate important events in the city’s history: the building of Fort Dearborn in 1803 -–1804, the great Chicago Fire of 1871, which cost 250 lives and left almost 100.000 Chicagoans homeless, the World’s Columbine Exposition of 1893, held in celebration of the 400-th anniversary of Columbus discovery f America, and a century of Progress of 1933 – 1934, which marked Chicago’s hundredth birthday.
2. Chicago stands upon an Alluvial1 plain formed by the Chicago and Calumet rivers. The North and South branches of the Chicago River divides the city into some parts known as the North Side, the South Side and the West Side. The Chicago River is widely known as the river which flows backward, or which runs up-hill. This is because the flow of the water was reversed in 1900. Until that time the river flowed into Lake Michigan, where it polluted the drinking water and contributed greatly to disease.
3. Lake Michigan provides an unfailing supply of water for drinking and industrial purposes. The water is pumped from six so-called “cribs”, located well out in the lake, through underground tunnels to pumping stations located on land. Here the water is treated in order to free it impurities.
It is then brought through smaller water mains2 to houses and places of business in every section of the city and to many suburbs as well. Lake Michigan acts as an air conditioner. In summer the cool breezes from the lake moderate the air and the warmer lake winds tend to diminish the cold on the land. Because of the lake, long periods of intense heart or cold are unusual in Chicago.
4. The line of the lake front, somewhat north of its middle point, borders the principal business centre, known as the Loop, where the skyscrapers cluster. A little to the east is the harbour. Further South, along the Calumet river and the harbour, are the docks.
5. Located on the south-west shore of Lake Michigan, Chicago has a population of more then three million, and although no longer America’s food – processing and meat – packing centre, it produces more steel, more cookies and candy, more radios and TV-sets, and more paint machine tools than any other area in US.
6. Chicago is one of the most architecturally interesting cities of the country. The world’s first skyscraper was built in Chicago in 1884, and in the following decade many of these buildings were raised on the steel skeletons that allowed them to soar to great heights and get look light and graceful.
1. alluvial – made of or by sand, mud or each washed down by rain or rivers.
2. main – a principal pipe carrying water, gas etc.
I. Перед тем как приступить к работе над текстом найдите по словарю значения следующих слов:
1.to commemorate; 2.backward; 3.to pollute; 4.disease; 5.suburb; 6.because of; 7.somewhat; 8.harbor; 9.candy; 10.height; 11.to fail; 12.to diminish.
II. Прочитайте текст за 20 минут и выберите заголовок, соответствующий его содержанию:
1. The history of Chicago.
2. The role of Lake Michigan in Chicago’s life.
3. Chicago as one of large American cities.
III. Прочитайте первый абзац текста и ответьте на вопросы к нему:
1. How does the Chicago flag look like ?
2. What do stars commemorate ?
3. What Fire took place in 1871 ?
IV. Прочитайте второй абзац текста и ответьте, какие из предложенных утверждений соответствуют его содержанию:
1. Chicago stands on an alluvial plain formed by three rivers.
2. The north and the south branches of Chicago River divide the city into three parts.
3. It is until 1900 the Chicago River flowed into Lake Michigan.
V. Письменно переведите третий абзац текста.
VI. Прочитайте 4-й и 5-й абзацы текста и ответьте, какие утверждения соответствуют их содержанию:
1. A little to the east of the Lake Michigan is the business centre.
2. The docks are situated farther south, along the Chicago River.
3. Chicago is a large city with the population of more than three million.
4. Chicago is a large industrial centre of U.S.
VII. Какие из данных утверждений наиболее полно отражают содержание 6-го абзаца:
1. Chicago is the most architecturally interesting city in America.
3. Chicago is one of the most architecturally interesting cites in America.
Общенаучные тексты для дополнительного чтения
FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF SCIENCE
Science had its origin in some distant era when people began to show desire to know about their environment and to record what they saw. In time, studies of these observations led to the idea that nature is knowable, that it operates according to "laws".
The actual birth of science took place in prehistoric times, probably in Egypt and Babilonia, more than 2,000 years before our era.
But true progress in science did not begin until about the sixth century before our era, when the Greek civilisation began to flourish. The next 500 years was the age of the great philosophers of antiquity — Thales, Pythagorus, Aristotle, Archimedes, and others.
Archimedes discovered some of the basic laws governing mechanisms and floating bodies. To Archimedes we owe the first application of mathematics to the description of nature. He was very far in advance of his time.
In the period from the Greeks to the Renaissance few contributions were made to the development of science. First in importance among the scientific achievements of the Renaissance was the idea that the sun, rather than the earth, is the centre of our system of sun, moon, and planets. At the beginning of the sixteenth century the prevailing idea was that of an earth-centred universe, as described by Ptolomy.
The Polish astronomer N. Copernicus assumed that the earth is merely one of the planets and that all of them moved about the sun. It is hard now to understand the courage required to advance an idea of this nature because of the great wave of opposition which .confronted Copernicus.
did not begin until about the sixth century начался приблизительно только в шестом столетии
far in advance значительно опередил
Rather than the earth а не земля
to advance an idea of this natureвыдвинуть подобную мысль
because of вследствие, из за
A LESSON IN THE HISTORY OF LITTLE THINGS
Until the beginning of the seventeenth century mankind had little understanding of the structure of the material world. Man believed that stones were stones, fire was fire, and water was simply water. Now we know that all kinds of substances consist of very small invisible particles — atoms. They make up all the elements and compounds that exist in the world, the air that man breathes, the ground on which he walks, man's food. Their interactions provide the energy that man uses.
In this connection, the question at once arises what are atoms like? The determination of the exact nature of nature was a very difficult and interesting problem. For a hundred years some of the best men of science on earth thought of it, and today many scientists do a lot of research.
The word atom came from the Greek and means "indivisible". The ancient Greeks studied the structure of matter and noted that it is possible to divide and further subdivide a stone until the particles become like powder, which they thought was the limit of divisibility. The same was true for other common substances, such as wood or -water or minerals. They called .these smallest panicles atoms. But since the Greeks were philosophers arid not experimenters, they had no real-understanding and knowledge of the true structure of matter.
It was at the beginning of the nineteenth century that the scientists first established experimentally the atomic theory of the structure of matter. They found that the simple forms of matter were chemical elements which consisted of atoms —particles of very small size.
At the end of the nineteenth century scientists achieved a great quantity of information on the atomic structure of matter and the general nature of the atom. They discovered most of the chemical elements and found that the atoms of each element were different in chemical and physical properties from the properties of other elements.
A further discovery was that the atoms combine in small numbers and form units of matter or molecules and that in all substances the atoms and molecules are in a state of rapid motion. Besides, some fundamental chemical characteristics became clear. One of these was that atoms group according to their atomic weights into eight groups the chemical properties of which are similar.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
have little understanding мало понимать
at once сразу, тотчас же
what are atoms like что представляют собой атомы
all kinds of substances всевозможные вещества
a great quantity of очень много
in this connection в связи с этим
STRUCTURE OF MATTER
To understand the electronic theory, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the structure of matter. In elementary physics we are taught that matter consists of very small particles called molecules. These molecules are the smallest physically divisible parts of matter—physically divisible because they can be further subdivided by other means into. smaller particles, for instance, by chemical means.
A molecule of water consists of three of these particles: two of hydrogen and one of oxygen. These smaller particles are called atoms. A molecule of water is, therefore, made up of three atoms. Similarly, any substance can always be subdivided into atoms. In some elements, the atom is the same as the molecule.
The atom is still further divisible into smaller kinds of particles which are nothing but particles of positive and negative electricity. Each atom has a nucleus electrically positive and consisting of-particles of which the main are the proton, and the neutrons. Outside the nucleus and very far apart from it move electrons, which are negative particles of electricity. All the protons and electrons are the same in all kinds of atoms and the properties of matter are dependent on the way in which they are arranged.
The atom as a whole is neutral, since in any atom there are as many protons as there are electrons, so if one of the electrons leaves the atom, it becomes positively charged.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
for instance например
which are nothing but particlesкоторые являются не чем иным, как частицами
As a whole в целом as many ... as столько же ... сколько
STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES
To understand the various states of matter and their connection to each other, we must understand the meaning of the word molecule.
We can divide a piece of material into small parts and then subdivide each of these small parts into still smaller parts. We shall continue this process of division until the parts become very, very small. In the end they will become so small that it will be impossible to divide them further. We call these smallest particles atoms. They are the fundamental building blocks of all materials and they have a definite attraction for each other.
Atoms combine into molecules and molecules may contain one, two, three and more atoms. In metals there is only one atom in a molecule, for example.
The molecules of a solid are very close together and have a great attraction for each other. The -closer they are together, the heavier is the solid; however, the molecules are in a state of continual vibration. In this state their attraction for each other is very great, and that is why it is very difficult to change the shape of a solid.
Now, if we heat the solid, the molecules begin to vibrate more and more and therefore there is less attraction for each other. Thus, a solid expands when we heat it. When the molecules are quite far apart from each other, the solid changes into a liquid.
If we continue to heat the liquid, the molecules begin to vibrate so strongly and they move so far apart from each other that they will have very little attraction for each other. Now the liquid becomes a gas which has no definite size.
The three states of matter — solid, liquid and gaseous — are very close to each other and more heat or less heat will change the substance from one state to the other. Ice, water and steam are examples of this change of state.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
...have a great attraction for each other сильно притягивают друг друга
They move so far apart from each other они так далеко отодвигаются друг от друга
WHAT IS AN ELECTRON?
What is an electron? We can think of the electron as a very small, indivisible, fundamental particle—a major constituent of all 'matter. All electrons appear to be identical and to have properties that do not change with time. Two essential characteristics of the electron are its mass and its charge. Qualitatively, we can think of an electron as a "piece of matter" that has weight and is affected by gravity. Just as the mass of any object is defined, we can define the mass of the electron by applying a force and measuring the resulting rate of change in the velocity of the electron, that is, the rapidity with which its velocity changes. This rate of change is called acceleration, and the electron mass is then defined as the ratio of the applied force to the resulting acceleration. The mass of the electron is found to be about 9.11 X 10-28 grams.1 Not only the electron but all matter appears to have positive mass, which is equivalent to saying that a force applied to any object results in an acceleration 2 in the same direction as the force.
How does the other aspect, the charge of the electron, arise? If we investigate further, we find that all electrons have an electric charge, and the amount of charge, like the mass, is identical for all electrons. No one has ever succeeded in isolating an amount of charge smaller than that of the electron. The sign of the charge of the electron fs conventionally defined as negative; the electron thus represents the fundamental unit of a negative charge.
No experiment has yet succeeded in removing the charge from the electron, leaving only its mass. Therefore, instead of considering the electron a "massive" body that has some-how acquired a charge, it seems more realistic to think that the charge and the mass are two inseparable aspects of a single unity.
The motion of an electron, like that of any other body, results from a force acting on it. How can force be applied to an electron? One way is by gravity. Another is by bringing a second charge near the electron, thus exerting an attractive or a repulsive force on it. In this case we may say that the second charge sets up an electric field which applies a force to the first charge. Finally, we find that an electric current flow will affect the motion of a nearby charge, but only if that charge is already in motion. In this case, we say that the current sets up a magnetic field which applies a force to the moving charge. These three are the only known ways of applying force to an electron. The relationship between these fields, the charges producing them and the resulting effects on other charges are the Jaws or electron motion.
1. 9.1 IX 10-28 grams—nine point eleven multiplied by ten to the minus twenty-eighth power
2. to result in an acceleration — вызывать ускорение
Gravitation is a very important force in the universe. Every object has a gravitational pull which is like magnetism. But, unlike magnetism, gravitation is not only in iron and steel. It is in every object large or small; but large objects, such as earth, have a stronger pull than small ones.
Isaac Newton, the great scientist of the seventeenth century, first studied gravitation. When he was a boy, he often saw how apples fell to the ground. He wondered why they fell towards the earth and why they did not fly up into the sky.
According to l the law which he later produced everything in the universe attracts everything else towards itself. The sun attracts the earth and the earth attracts the sun. The earth attracts the moon and the moon attracts the sun. Although the bigger object has the stronger attraction, all objects, in fact,2 have some attraction too but we do not notice the gravitational pull of a book because the pull of the earth is very much greater.
Why does the earth always move round the sun, and not fly off into cold space? The sun's gravitation gives the answer. The earth always tries to move away in a straight line, but the sun always pulls it back. So it continues on its journey round and round the sun.
The sun is one of the stars in the galaxy, in which there are about 100,000 million stars. It is not in the middle of the galaxy, but rather 3 near one edge.
There are millions of galaxies in the universe and so there are thousands of millions of millions of suns. Many astronomers believe that some of these suns have planets as our sun does.
Gravitation is the force which holds all the atoms of a star together. It holds the sun together and it holds the atoms of the earth together. It holds us on the earth.
Einstein produced a new law of gravitation. Its main results are the same as the results of Newton's law; but in very small and fine matters Einstein's law gives different results. One of these is that gravitation bends light a little; but according to Newton's law gravitation has very little effect on light. Einstein showed this fact by means of mathematics and not by experiment. And astronomers later proved by experiments that Einstein was right.
1. according to—в соответствии с
2. in fact — на самом деле, фактически
3. but rather — а скорее
USES OF ELECTRICITY
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