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Exercise 17. Поставьте предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму.




1. They have received a new flat this year.

2. She has been to Italy.

3. They have already heard the news.

4. I have known his father.

Exercise 18. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Have you ever been to the Crimea?

2. Have you ever been abroad?

3. Has your sister ever been abroad?

4. Have you ever played any musical instrument?

5. Who has phoned you?

6. Which of you has never seen mountains?

Exercise 19. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в форму Present Perfect

A: Have you ever given an interview?

B: No, I ...have never done... (never/do) that.

1. A: What time does the tram leave?

B: It (just/leave)!

2. A: Is the new restaurant good?

B: I (not/eat) there yet.

3. A: Shall I do the shopping now?

B: No. I (already do) it.

4. A: Julia, are you ready?

B: No, I (not/dry) my hair yet.

5. A: Would you like to have lunch with me?

B: No. thanks. I (already/eat).

Exercise 20. Перепишите предложения используя времена Present Perfect и Past Simple

Example. I am writing a letter to my cousin.

I have already written a letter to my cousin.

I wrote a letter to my cousin .

1. The waitress is bringing our tea. (a minute ago, not yet)

2. The bell is ringing. (Just; some minutes ago)

3. The boys are playing football in the yard (yesterday; many times)

4. Mother is reading a new novel . (this month; last )

5. The birds are flying to the South, (already; the end of August)

6. The train is coming. (Just; an hour)

7. We are writing the words of Lesson 7. (already, at the last lesson)

Exercise. 21 Образуйте Present Perfect Continuous Tense от глаголов в скобках.

She… has been living... with us since then (live)

1. How long ... the children ... (play)?

2 .He is tired. He ... all day. (dig)

3. She ... at this school for twenty years. (teach)

4. He ... experiments for a year. (make)

5. What ... you ... with yourself lately. (do)?

6. I think she ... lies as usual. (tell)

7. I ... myself that question for many years .(ask)

Exercise 22. Вставьте подходящее наречие времени из списка.

Since, all morning, already, how long, for. ever, yet, so far, just, always

The baby has been crying ...all morning...

1. Simon hasn't started school

2. She has ______ washed the clothes, so they are still wet.

3. Martha has______wanted to go to Mexico.

4. She has been ill ______ a week.

5. ______ has he been at home?

6. It's very early, but Richard has _____ gone to work.

7. I've sent ten party invitations ..______

8. I haven't spoken French______ 1990.

9. Have you _____ appeared on television?

Reading 6

TOMAS EDISON

Thomas Edison was born in 1847 in Milan, in the state Ohio. He grew up in Michigan. Since his childhood he liked reading and making experiments. He had a very little schooling. Edison worked as a gatekeeper at the observatory of his father. Then he worked on a railway station selling newspapers and sweets. Also he worked as a telegrapher. He set up a laboratory in his father's basement.

He was strongly motivated in his inventions because he wanted to overcome his partial deafness. He created the first industrial and research laboratory in Menlo Park, in New Jersey. During the eighty-four years of his life Thomas Edison patented over 1000 inventions. In his laboratory Edison did not work alone. He had some talented assistants from England, Germany, Switzerland and other countries.

The important part of Edison's activities was making the official drawings for the United States Patent Office in Washington. The employees of that office proved that the inventions were only Edison's. Grosvenor Lowery was Edison's lawyer whose work was to increase the quantity of money for Edison's laboratory which needed more and more equipment.

He developed a machine which could send four telegraph messages down one wire for the Western Union. He invented the carbon-button transmitter which is still used in telephone speakers and microphones. He created the phonograph and the incandescent light bulb. In lower Manhattan in 1882 Thomas Edison supervised the installation of the first permanent commercial central power system in the world. In 1884 he built a new laboratory in West Orange, in New Jersey. There Edison's team developed an early movie camera, an instrument for viewing moving pictures, the alkaline storage battery. Nearly 400 patents were received by Edison for inventing the electric light and power. He continued his work until his death in October 18, 1931 in West Orange, New Jersey.

 

Words:

Gatekeeper - охранник observatory - обсерватория partial deafness – частичная глухота installation - запуск research laboratory - исследовательская лаборатория make experiments – ставить опыты set up - основать drawings – чертежи employees –работники incandescent lightbul - лампа накаливания electric light –электрический свет invention - изобретение invent – изобретать telegraph messages – телеграфное сообщение  

Exercise 1: Answer the questions– Ответьте на вопросы, передавая краткое содержание текста:

1. Where and when was Thomas Edison born?

2. What did Thomas Edison like to do in his childhood?

3. Where did Thomas Edison work?

4. Who helped Thomas Edison in his work?

5. Why was he strongly motivated in his inventions?

6. How many inventions did Thomas Edison patent during his life and what are they?

Exercise 2: Are these statements true or false? – Истинны или ложны данные высказывания?

1. Thomas Edison was born in 1847 in West Orange, in New Jersey.

2. Thomas Edison worked on a railway station selling his invention.

3. He was strongly motivated in his inventions because he wanted to overcome his partial deafness.

4. Thomas Edison didn’t have any assistants, he worked alone.

5. He invented the carbon-button transmitter which isn’t used today in telephone speakers and microphones.

6. Thomas Edison created the incandescent lightbulb.

7. He supervised the installation of the first permanent commercial central power system in the world.

8. Edison's team developed an early movie camera.

9. Edison received over 1000 patents for inventing the electric light and power.

10. Thomas Edison died in October 18, 1931 in West Orange, New Jersey.

 

Exercise 3: Form the nouns from the given verbs and translate them into Russian. Learn the words. – Образуйте существительные от данных глаголов и переведите их на русский язык. Выучите слова:t

1. to equip

2. to motivate

3. to patent

4. to assist

5. to install

 


Reading 7

Isaac Newton

If you ask someone, who is the most brilliant Englishman, he/she will probably answer: Isaac Newton. To my mind, it's true.

The outstanding English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton was born on the 4-th of January in 1643 in Woolsthorpe in England. He invented the infinitesimal calculus, laid the foundations of modern physical optics and formulated three laws of motion that became basic principles of modern physics and led to his theory of universal gradation. He is regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all times.

Newton received a bachelor's degree at the Trinity College, in Cambridge. During the next two years while the University was closed because of the plague, Newton returned home, where he thought about how certain natural phenomena might be explained, and formulated the bases of his first major discoveries. When he returned he became a professor of mathematics.

In 1666 Newton discovered the nature of white light by passing a beam of sunlight through a prism. He invented a calculus about 1669 but he formally published his ideas only 35 years later. He built the first reflecting telescope in 1668.

Newton's most famous publication, Philosophiae Naturalis Principa Matematica(Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) contains his work on the laws of motion, the theory of tides and the theory of gravitation. His laws of motion laid the basis for classical mechanics, and the theory of gravity was particularly important in working out the motion.

Words:

Physicis - физик Mathematician - математик infinitesimal calculus – анализ бесконечно малых величин laу the basis –заложить основы work out – разрабатывать he is regarded – его считают bachelor's degree – степень бакалавра how certain natural phenomena might be explained – как можно объяснить некоторые явления природы laws of motion – законы динамики contain - содержать

Exercise 1: Answer the questions – Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Where did Isaac Newton take a bachelor's degree?

2. When did he become a professor of mathematics?

3. What are his main theories?

4. What is Newton’s most famous publication?

5. What does it contain?

6. Why are his laws of motion so important?





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