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Match first calculating devices 1-6 to the pictures.



Essential vocabulary

according to calculation n design v/n machine n rapid a software n
available a circuit n encode v ordinary a reliable a speed n
basic a close a hardware n owing to prep refine v store v
built-in a complete v install v process v size n weight n
by means of deal with v inspire v quality n shape n whereas conj.

Answer the questions.

1 What is the earliest recognized calculating device?

2 Who invented the first mechanical calculator?

3 Who deserves the title Father of the Computer?

 

Match first calculating devices 1-6 to the pictures.



1 __________________          2 __________________        3 __________________

 


4 __________________          3 ___________________      4 __________________

 

1 The Counting Clock of Wilhelm Schickard

2 The Abacus [ˈæb.ə.kəs ]

3 Herman Hollerith’s tabulating machine

4 The Analytical Engine of Charles Babbage                             

5 The mechanical calculator invented by Leibniz [ˈlaɪbnɪts]

6 Pascal’s calculator or Pascaline




B Match meanings 1-6 with the words in bold from the exercise above.

 

1 the part of a computer that reads and stores information on disks       ________

2 a part of a computer that controls all other parts of a system               ________

3 the part of a computer where information is stored                                ________

4 the system of putting information into a computer and getting it out  ________                

5 extremely important or necessary                                                         ________

6 to keep information or facts in a computer                                           ________

7 a device with moving parts that uses power to do work                       ________

of a particular type                                                                                     

 

C Study the rules of word formation. Find the words with this suffix in the text.

Suffix - ian 1 makes a noun meaning “a person who does something”

Example words: electrician, physician (do not confuse with physicist)

               2 makes an adjective meaning “belonging to”

Example words: Italian, Australian                       

 

4A Watch the video Charles Babbage Analytical Engine and answer the questions.

 

Useful notes:

cog [ kɒɡ ]n – зубец, выступ.

ratchet [ˈrætʃ.ɪt ] n – храповой механизм

restrict [ rɪˈstrɪkt ] v  - ограничивать

rod n - стержень

crank [ kræŋk ] n – рычаг, рукоятка, заводная ручка

stiff a – жёсткий, негибкий

pattern n – образец, определённый рисунок, узор

punched cards - перфокарты

Joseph Jacquard – французский изобретатель ткацкого станка для узорчатых материй

 

1When did Charles Babbage design the world’s first true computer’?

2 Who helped him to write a programme for his invention?

3 Whose daughter was Ada Lovelace?

4 Did Babbage and Lovelace finish their work?

5 What source of power did Babbage use for the Analytical Engine? Why?

6 Who did he get the idea for his input device from?

Did you know?

Prior to 1980, Webster’s Dictionary defined the word ‘computer’ as a person who computes, typically with a slide rule!

 5 Complete the sentences with the proper names of computer pioneers.

Then choose the scientist you like most and prepare a short talk about their inventions.

Semyon Korsakov       Blaise Pascal          Charles Babbage  

              Ada Lovelace          Gottfried Leibniz      Wilhelm Schickard             

1 was a genius of the first order – a mathematician and professor, an engineer and inventor, a politician, a writer, a founder of scientific organizations and an expert on industry. His pioneering book on the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures was cited repeatedly by Marx in Capital. He was a human dynamo who needed only five or six hours to sleep a day and who was driven by millenarian version of man and machine that brought him within a hair’s breadth of the invention of the greatest of all machines – the Computer.

2 The English mathematician … wrote hypothetical programs for the Analytical Engine, saying, “A new, a vast and a powerful language is developed for future use of analysis”. For that work is often considered the world’s first programmer. In 1980, the US Department of Defense settled on (in honour of ….) the name for a new standardized computer language. But some scientists think that… was Babbage’s fairy lady – interpreter, adviser, collaborator and only supported Charles Babbage financially, intellectually and emotionally. As such her achievement was certainly remarkable.

 

3 was a very competent mathematician. He became intrigued with the possibility of using machinery to enhance natural intelligence and later he invented several devices which he called machines for the comparison of ideas. Just like Babbage, could see the perspective of the suggested mechanization of thinking and just like Babbage, intended to use punched cards as a memory holder. Aiming to create an auxiliary amplifier for natural intelligence, invented five devices. He announced his new devices in September 1832. Later the same year, he presented his ideas to the Imperial Academy of Science in St. Petersburg, but their experts rejected his application, failing to see the potential of mechanizing searches through large stores of information. The commission, led by the famous mathematician M. Ostrogradski, even made an ironical note: “Mr. wasted his intelligence in order to teach other people to live without intelligence.”

4 The French most celebrated mathematician … was also a famous physicist and religious philosopher. In 1642, at the age of 18, ….  constructed a calculating device, the Pascaline, to help his father in his tax computations. The machine was regarded by …’s contemporaries as his main claim to fame. It was the first digital calculator since it operated by counting integers. In fact the machine could only add, because subtractions were performed using complement technique.

 

5 The great German mathematician was one of the first men who dreamed for a logical (thinking) device. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal’s calculator. created the first mechanical calculator, suitable not only for a addition and subtraction, but for multiplication also. It was the first calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations.

 

6 The German astronomer, mathematician and cartographer … created an adding machine preceding that of Pascal. He called it a Calculating Clock, the first form of the mechanical calculator that we use today. Unfortunately, the machine designed by… around 1623, didn’t manage to survive to the present day. Only 3 documents about the machine have been found till now. But modern engineers have been able to reproduce it from details in his letters.

 

 

Complete the table.

WORD FAMILY BASE                                WORD FAMILY CALCULATE

Nouns -               Adjectives -                      Nouns -            Adjectives -



       -                                 -                                  -                              -

Verbs -               Adverbs  -                      Verbs  -                                  

                        

7 Match words 1-8 with definitions a)-h)

1 built-in a      a) to perform a series of operations on data in a computer                                                                                                 

2 circuit n        b) the machinery and electronic parts of a computer system                                                                                                               

3 install v         c) the programs used to operate a computer                                                                                                                    

4 hardware n   d) included in something at the time that it is created

5 process v       e) the degree to which something or someone is large or small

6 size n            f) to copy something onto your computer so that it can be used

7 shape n         g) a closed system especially of wires through which electricity can flow

8 software n     h) the particular way something looks as a whole

 

 

Read the information.

 

Relative clauses provide important information about what or who we are talking about.

A relative clause is introduced by a pronoun. The most common relative pronouns are:

who: to refer to people

which: to refer to things

that: to refer to either people or things

whose: the possessive of who and which

when: used after nouns referring to time

where: used after nouns referring to place.

16 Match sentences 1-8 with appropriate relative clauses a)-h)

1 The case or system unit contains the electronic brain of the computer...

2 Laptop computers are small lightweight machines …

3 Probably the simplest type of hardware…is the mouse

4 Quantum computers…are fundamentally different

5 A man … gave commands.

6 It is the hour…

7 Charles Babbage is the person …

8 A library is a place…

 

a) which are being developed in labs right now

b) that we have

c) that can run on batteries

d) which processes and sends information between all of the other parts

e) where they keep books.                                                                                                                                       

f) whose voice seemed familiar to me                                                                                                                                         

g) when we sleep                                                                                                                             

h) who introduced the idea of storing and reading the information before processing.                                                                                                                                  

 

17 Match words 1-6 with definitions a)-f). Then join the sentences with which, whose, whereandthat.

 

1a iPod                                                                                        

iPod is an electronic device which you use to listen to music.

2 ____ laboratory                                                                               

3 ____ engineer

4 ____ processor

5 ____ device

6 ____ monitor

a) An electronic device. You use it to listen to music.

b) A part of a computer. It controls all the other parts of a computer.

c) An object or machine. It has been invented to fulfill a particular purpose.

d) A person. His or her job involves designing and building engines, machines, roads, etc.

e) A device with a screen. It shows information from a computer.

f) A place, Chemicals or medicines are produced there.

 

Answer these questions.

1 How do you prefer to read in English? Why?

slowly / aloud / to yourself / with a dictionary / without a dictionary

 2 Is it a good idea to change the way you read from time to time? Why?

 3 Would you like to improve your reading skills?

 4 Do you practise the pronunciation of any difficult words before reading aloud the whole text?

 5 What should you do when you are asked to skim the text?

 6 Should you read the text very carefully when you are given a task toscan the text?

 7 What do you do when you come across unfamiliar words in the text you’re reading?

 8 What should you start with when you’re trying to guess the unknown word?

 

21 Read the information and complete the gaps with the words skim or scan.

When you ____ read a paragraph, you quickly read through it just to find out the main points.

You shouldn’t worry about words you don’t understand and you shouldn’t read each sentence slowly and carefully in an attempt to make sure you understand everything.

When you ____ a text, you look through it in order to find particular words or pieces of information. You do not need to read every word of the text in order to do this.

 

A NANOCOMPUTING

B RADICAL NEXT-GEN COMPUTING

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH

Compound adjectives

 

Work in pairs.

Then swap the roles.

 

Example: Student A: a watch. a bulb, speakers

           Student B: a water-proof watch, an energy-efficient light bulb, built-in speakers

 

Answer the questions.

1 Why are users so excited about flexible display technology?

2 What is the main reason why we don’t have truly flexible and stretchable electronics yet?

3 What are the practical applications of flexible electronics?

 

Then answer the questions.

  Which adjective …

                         … is not gradable?

                         … has the same noun/adjective form?

                         … forms the related noun form with the help of the suffix –ty?

                         … is the opposite of the adjective slight ?     

                         … has two related nouns?

                         … forms the negative form with the help of the prefix im-?

User                                                                   Helpdesk

You ran some new software and since then        Ask them if they have tried restarting their

nothing seems to work properly. (You apologize computer. (Ask them where they got the

to the helpdesk, because this is third time you’ve software from. Tell them that they should

called them today.)                                                check with you before installing any new

                                                                               software on a company computer.)

 

User                                                                    Helpdesk

You are trying to print out a document but the   Tell them that you’ll need to install some

symbols have come out all wrong. (You really         software that will allow them to print these

need the document immediately for a meeting.)   symbols correctly. (Tell them that you are

                                                                               really busy and you can’t do it until

                                                                               tomorrow.)

 

35 Match each sentence 1-6 with a suitable response a)-f)

1 Do you think you could send me a copy?           a) Sure, what’s up?   

2 Oh dear, I’m having trouble opening this file     b) Just a minute I’ll see if it’s done

3 Can I have a quick word?                                    c) What version of the soft are you using?

4 How about if we run an anti-virus scan?             d) Here, let me help you

5 I’m calling about the repair to my laptop            e) Certainly, I’ll do it right now

6 I can’t print anything                                           f) That’s an idea! I’ll try that

 

Then answer the questions.

Useful notes:

 

fold v –свёртывать. складывать

semiconductors n - полупроводники

conductors n  – проводники

insulators n  -  непроводник

film – плёнка

 

1 Have you seen flexible displays?

2 Have they already appeared as a complete commercial product?

3 Why do you think they haven’t been put into a product yet?

4 Are manufactures interested in flexible displays?

5 When can we expect to see a smart phone with a truly flexible display?

6 What are the uses for flexible and foldable displays?

 

Did you know?

A supercomputer was used to mimic brain but even with its 83 000 processors it could mimic

just 1% of one second of human activity and it took 40 minutes to do so.

 

44A Read the article and suggest the title. What do you understand by ‘intelligence’?                                                                

There's more to intelligence than processing speed. While a supercomputer like the Sequoia can analyze problems and reach a solution faster than humans, it can't adapt and learn the way humans can. Our brains are capable of analyzing new and unfamiliar situations in a way that computers can't. We can draw upon our past experiences and make inferences about the new situation. We can experiment with different approaches until we find the best way to move forward. Computers aren't capable of doing that -- you have to tell a computer what to do.

Humans are also very good at recognizing patterns. While we're making progress in machine pattern recognition, it's mostly on a superficial level. For example, some digital cameras can recognize specific faces and automatically tag photos of those people as you take pictures. But humans can recognize complex patterns and adapt to them -- computers still have trouble doing that.

Could computer scientists build a machine that simulates the way humans think? It's not as easy as it sounds. The human brain is incredibly complex. We still don't have a full understanding of how the brain works. Without this understanding, it's challenging to create a meaningful simulation of the brain.

One of the features computers would need to be more intelligent than humans is the ability to draw conclusions from observations. In a study published in 2009, computer engineers at Cornell University designed a program that could do this on a limited scale. The program gave the computer a basic set of tools it could use to observe and analyze the movements of a pendulum Using this foundation, the software was able to extrapolate basic laws of physics from the pendulum's motions. It took about a day for the computer to arrive at the same conclusions it took humans thousands of years to grasp.

While the Cornell project was a remarkable achievement in computer engineering, we're still years away from computers that can make conclusions from general observations. The Cornell software gave the computer the tools it needed to draw conclusions -- the computer was unable to create or refine these tools for itself.

As long as computers rely on sets of pre-installed instructions to perform tasks, they can't be said to be more intelligent than humans. Even IBM's Watson can only respond to input -- it can't spontaneously pull up information or think in the way we humans do. Only when computers can adapt and perform tasks outside their initial programming will they be truly intelligent. Until that time, computers are just very sophisticated calculator.

Hundreds of computer scientists are trying to solve this crucial problem. Some are attempting to design computers that can mimic human thought -- a tricky situation considering we still don't have a complete understanding of how we think. Other computer scientists prefer to design systems that don't use the brain as a model. Futurists like Dr. Ray Kurzweil predict that it's just a matter of time before we develop a computer system capable of being self-aware. After that, we may see computers capable of recursive self-improvement. That means computers will be able to analyze their own capabilities and make adjustments to improve performance.

But creating a self-aware computer system is beyond our capabilities right now. It may not even be possible. While we continue to gain understanding in the fields of biology and computer science, we may encounter a fundamental obstacle before we can ever create a self-aware machine. Alternatively, we may come to a point where human and machine intelligence merge, leaving the entire question moot


B Read the article again. Are statements 1-6 true (T) or false (F)?


What can’t computers do?

Describe the experiment.

Work in pairs.

Student A:  read sentences 1-6 aloud.

Student B:  respond to your partner’s questions or requests.

Example: - Would it be OK to use the projector for my presentation?

- I’m afraid not. The thing is, it is being repaired at the moment.

- Oh, OK, I’ll just use my laptop then.

          

1 Do you think you could send me those pdf files?

2 Oh, no my computer’s crashed. Can I use yours?

3 Have you got the user manual for the new software?

4 I can’t connect to the Internet.

5 I saved some files to my hard drive and they have disappeared.

6 I can’t print anything.

 

REVIEW 1-4

 

Essential vocabulary

according to calculation n design v/n machine n rapid a software n
available a circuit n encode v ordinary a reliable a speed n
basic a close a hardware n owing to prep refine v store v
built-in a complete v install v process v size n weight n
by means of deal with v inspire v quality n shape n whereas conj.

Answer the questions.

1 What is the earliest recognized calculating device?

2 Who invented the first mechanical calculator?

3 Who deserves the title Father of the Computer?

 

Match first calculating devices 1-6 to the pictures.



1 __________________          2 __________________        3 __________________

 


4 __________________          3 ___________________      4 __________________

 

1 The Counting Clock of Wilhelm Schickard

2 The Abacus [ˈæb.ə.kəs ]

3 Herman Hollerith’s tabulating machine

4 The Analytical Engine of Charles Babbage                             

5 The mechanical calculator invented by Leibniz [ˈlaɪbnɪts]

6 Pascal’s calculator or Pascaline







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