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B Match meanings 1-6 with the words in bold from the exercise above.
⇐ ПредыдущаяСтр 3 из 10Следующая ⇒
1 the part of a computer that reads and stores information on disks ________
2 a part of a computer that controls all other parts of a system ________
3 the part of a computer where information is stored ________
4 the system of putting information into a computer and getting it out ________
5 extremely important or necessary ________
6 to keep information or facts in a computer ________
7 a device with moving parts that uses power to do work ________
of a particular type
C Study the rules of word formation. Find the words with this suffix in the text.
Suffix - ian 1 makes a noun meaning “a person who does something”
Example words: electrician, physician (do not confuse with physicist)
2 makes an adjective meaning “belonging to”
Example words: Italian, Australian
4A Watch the video Charles Babbage Analytical Engine and answer the questions.
cog [ kɒɡ ]n – зубец, выступ.
ratchet [ˈrætʃ.ɪt ] n – храповой механизм
restrict [ rɪˈstrɪkt ] v - ограничивать
rod n - стержень
crank [ kræŋk ] n – рычаг, рукоятка, заводная ручка
stiff a – жёсткий, негибкий
pattern n – образец, определённый рисунок, узор
punched cards - перфокарты
Joseph Jacquard – французский изобретатель ткацкого станка для узорчатых материй
1When did Charles Babbage design the world’s first true computer’?
2 Who helped him to write a programme for his invention?
3 Whose daughter was Ada Lovelace?
4 Did Babbage and Lovelace finish their work?
5 What source of power did Babbage use for the Analytical Engine? Why?
6 Who did he get the idea for his input device from?
B Work in pairs and complete the information.
1 Charles Babbage designed the world’s first true computer in …
2 He called it …
3 Ada Lovelace, the daughter of … produced … to operate the analytical machine.
4 Babbage was restricted to using wheels and cogs to represent …
5 The electricity was not usable at that time so he had to rely on … to power his machine.
6 Babbage’s analytical machine may have been a practical failure but…
Work in pairs. Write three questions on the history of computing. Then ask and answer the questions.
Did you know?
Prior to 1980, Webster’s Dictionary defined the word ‘computer’ as a person who computes, typically with a slide rule!
5 Complete the sentences with the proper names of computer pioneers.
Then choose the scientist you like most and prepare a short talk about their inventions.
Semyon Korsakov Blaise Pascal Charles Babbage
Ada Lovelace Gottfried Leibniz Wilhelm Schickard
1 … was a genius of the first order – a mathematician and professor, an engineer and inventor, a politician, a writer, a founder of scientific organizations and an expert on industry. His pioneering book on the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures was cited repeatedly by Marx in Capital. He was a human dynamo who needed only five or six hours to sleep a day and who was driven by millenarian version of man and machine that brought him within a hair’s breadth of the invention of the greatest of all machines – the Computer.
2 The English mathematician … wrote hypothetical programs for the Analytical Engine, saying, “A new, a vast and a powerful language is developed for future use of analysis”. For that work …is often considered the world’s first programmer. In 1980, the US Department of Defense settled on (in honour of ….) the name … for a new standardized computer language. But some scientists think that… was Babbage’s fairy lady – interpreter, adviser, collaborator and only supported Charles Babbage financially, intellectually and emotionally. As such her achievement was certainly remarkable.
3 …was a very competent mathematician. He became intrigued with the possibility of using machinery to enhance natural intelligence and later he invented several devices which he called machines for the comparison of ideas. Just like Babbage, … could see the perspective of the suggested mechanization of thinking and just like Babbage, intended to use punched cards as a memory holder. Aiming to create an auxiliary amplifier for natural intelligence, … invented five devices. He announced his new devices in September 1832. Later the same year, he presented his ideas to the Imperial Academy of Science in St. Petersburg, but their experts rejected his application, failing to see the potential of mechanizing searches through large stores of information. The commission, led by the famous mathematician M. Ostrogradski, even made an ironical note: “Mr. … wasted his intelligence in order to teach other people to live without intelligence.”
4 The French most celebrated mathematician … was also a famous physicist and religious philosopher. In 1642, at the age of 18, …. constructed a calculating device, the Pascaline, to help his father in his tax computations. The machine was regarded by …’s contemporaries as his main claim to fame. It was the first digital calculator since it operated by counting integers. In fact the machine could only add, because subtractions were performed using complement technique.
5 The great German mathematician … was one of the first men who dreamed for a logical (thinking) device. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal’s calculator. … created the first mechanical calculator, suitable not only for a addition and subtraction, but for multiplication also. It was the first calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations.
6 The German astronomer, mathematician and cartographer … created an adding machine preceding that of Pascal. He called it a Calculating Clock, the first form of the mechanical calculator that we use today. Unfortunately, the machine designed by… around 1623, didn’t manage to survive to the present day. Only 3 documents about the machine have been found till now. But modern engineers have been able to reproduce it from details in his letters.
Complete the table.
WORD FAMILY BASE WORD FAMILY CALCULATE
Nouns - Adjectives - Nouns - Adjectives -
- - - -
Verbs - Adverbs - Verbs -
7 Match words 1-8 with definitions a)-h)
1 built-in a a) to perform a series of operations on data in a computer
2 circuit n b) the machinery and electronic parts of a computer system
3 install v c) the programs used to operate a computer
4 hardware n d) included in something at the time that it is created
5 process v e) the degree to which something or someone is large or small
6 size n f) to copy something onto your computer so that it can be used
7 shape n g) a closed system especially of wires through which electricity can flow
8 software n h) the particular way something looks as a whole
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