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B Read the text again more carefully. Five relative clauses have been removed from the sentences in the text. Choose from a)-f) the one which fits each gap (1-5). One clause is extra.


a) … who haven’t yet benefitted from IT…

b) … that might seem radical or even difficult to realize

c) … that have guided us so far

d) … that we still haven’t addressed satisfactorily

e) … that Charles Babbage and Alan Turning envisaged…

f) … which can store only a single value…


In the past half century, driven by rapid, phenomenal advances in microelectronics closely following Moore’s law, computers of different kinds, forms, and shapes have evolved, redefined, and transformed almost everything we deal with. However, they still function on the same fundamental computational principles 1_________________________________and that John von Neumann and others subsequently refined. What’s in store for the next 50 years? Do the fundamental principles and assumptions that define modern computing – and 2______________  – require revolutionary rethinking? How might- and should- computing advance to address unmet demands and current and emerging challengers?


Demands on computing, storage, and communication will continue to escalate. We’ll use computers for newer applications and computationally more difficult problems 3_____________ More people, even those at the bottom of the economic pyramid 4______________________________and almost everything, including objects, animals, and buildings, will eventually use and rely on computers in some form.


Unfortunately, digital computing based on silicon and the conventional architecture is reaching its limits owing to fundamental physical limits, economic considerations, and reliability issues. It’s also handicapped toaddress certain kinds of problems in domains such as weather forecasting, bioinformatics, robotics, and autonomous systems.

Thus, we must examine and advance new approaches 5_______________________________

Researchers and industry are thinking differently about computational principles and pursuing new paradigms such as quantum computing, biologically- inspired computing, and nanocomputing. We might soon need to embrace such approaches, particularly for some of the emerging applications. So, we need to understand the principles and potential of these paradigms and be aware of their current status and future prospects.


C Match meanings 1-8 and grammatical terms a)-h) with the words in bold from the text.

1 near                                                                                 a) noun                      1g - closely                                          

2 trying to achieve                                                             b) present participle _________                                                        

3 process of keeping information on a computer              c) multi-word verb _________                                                                          

4 quick or sudden                                                              d) gradable adjective _________                                                                

5 to accept an idea, a set of beliefs etc., with enthusiasm      e) infinitive with to   _________                                                               

6 influenced                                                                       f) past participle   _________

7 because of                                                                       g) adverb                    _________

8 to relate to something                                                     h) preposition        _________





Compound adjectives


A Listen to the talk about compound adjectives. Then answer the questions.


Useful notes:

lap time  - время круга в гонках

incredible [ ɪnˈkredɪbl̩ ] – невероятный, потрясающий, неимоверный etc.

hyphen [ ˈhaɪfən ]  – тире

carbohydrates [ ˌkɑːbəʊˈhaɪdreɪt ] - углеводы


1 What is Rob?

2 How fast was Rob’s lap time?

3 What did the last victory mean to Rob?

4 Why is there no s at the end of the word kilometre in the compound adjective four-kilometre?

5 Do you need a hyphen when you write a number-noun adjective?

6 Could you give examples of number-noun adjectives?


B Work in pairs and complete sentences 1-6 with a compound adjective from the box.

 Then listen again and check.

   six-mile  four-kilometre low-cost seventy-second nine-hour high-quality


1 Honestly, I expected to win. I mean, you don’t come second in a ________ vehicle like mine.

2 Well, you are right. You don’t see a _________ lap every day.

3 This year the drivers are hoping to complete the _________course in an even faster time.

4 How do you feel about _______ airlines, Catherine?

5 The flight from London to New York is a _________ trip.

6 Every morning, Cathering goes for a ______ run.    

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