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I. Дополните предложения данными словами. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

standard of service salary poor service campaign market research

1. Organizations which want to find out how the public perceive their products or services usually carry out some form of _______.

2. I always stay at the Ritz when I travel for business. The staff are really helpful and you have everything you need. The _______ is very high.

3. I think we should use local radio for our next advertising _______.

4. We stayed in a hotel in Vancouver but it was terrible. It had really ______; we asked Reception for coffee and waited for forty-five minutes!

5. The job offers a _______ of $125, 000 a year.


II. Соедините начало и конец предложения. Запишите их.

1. What’s the dollar – euro exchange …..

2. Don’t worry if the bank is closed; there’s a cash …..

3. When I travel on business, I always use a credit ….

4. Your bank …..

5. Not everyone shares her business …..

a. … vision for the development of the company.

b. … rate today, please?

c. … statement gives details of all the money going in and out of your account.

d. … machine where you can take out some money.

e. … card to pay restaurant and hotel bills.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Предложения переведите.

1. Each country has different laws to which its economy must conform.

2. The firm was to start producing the new equipment at the end of the year.

3. They should cut down costs by 5%.


IV. Поставьте глаголы-сказуемые в соответствующей видо-временной форме:

1. We (to thank) you for your letter of March 5-th.

2. Last week our clients (to write) to us that they (to need) the machine tools urgently.

3. For some reason of other they (to stop) the construction work for some time, but they will resume it very soon.

4. Exhibitions and fairs (to hold) every year in many countries of the world.

5. Mr. Johnson (to give) all the necessary information on the model during his visit to our office.

6. They (to be) our regular buyers of the mining equipment from Russia for the last years.

7. We (to consider) your price competitive.


V. Сделайте следующие предложения вопросительными:

1. He is often sent business abroad. (Who? )

2. These books are sold everywhere. (Where? )

3. Professor Brown is usually asked a lot of questions after his lecture. (When? )

4. Payment is made against shipping documents. (What? )

5. Tickets for planes are booked in advance. (How? )


VI. 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст.

Перепишите и письменно переведите заглавие и 1, 2, 5 абзацы текста.




1. Competition acts in the economy like a pressure cooker in the kitchen. It exerts pressure on people and speeds up results because it forces people to make greater efforts even when profits cannot motivate them.

2. A private enterprise economy faces the difficult task of obtaining the best possible performance without pressure. A dictatorship may issue government orders under threats of punishment. A democratic system uses different and more effective methods. We know from raising children that some children do their best when we promise them candy as a reward. Others respond better when they see how Johnny does it, and then want to do the same. The first group is motivated by profit, the other by competition.

3. The opportunity for greater profit becomes a less effective incentive as businessmen reach a position of comfort and satisfaction. When a successful man grows older, he may be perfectly satisfied with his business. He hopes to get profit from his business but considers a quiet life his greatest gain. Such attitude is understandable, but it interferes with the progress of a dynamic economy. Competition prevents this danger: established profits will be reduced by new firms copying the successful methods of the old, and profits will disappear entirely as more aggressive competitors advance better, or at least different, products.

4. Competition and profit drive the economy toward better want satisfaction. The hope for profit exerts its push on the producer. The producer undertakes something new that appeals to the consumer and makes the producer rich in the bargain. As soon as he reaches his goal and takes it easy others imitate him and pull his profits down until they are wiped out.

5. Competition satisfies several objectives. It prevents profits from continuing, after a risk has been reduced by experience. It permits imitation at a lower price. Competition also causes the introduction of improvements, which can produce the same output more cheaply. Profit may help to overcome the risk in making something new, but it is rarely a sufficient incentive to force management into a revision of outdated operating methods. Only the constant pressure of competition will force business to streamline production, reduce costs, modernize its thinking. Competition is an essential ingredient in the progress of free enterprise.


Пояснения к тексту:

a pressure cooker – скороварка

a private enterprise economy – экономика частного предпринимательства

to raise children – воспитывать детей

incentive – стимул

to appeal to – нравится

to make the producer rich in the bargain – приносить прибыль производителю

to take it easy – успокаиваться

output – продукция

to force management into a revision of outdated operating methods – чтобы заставить руководство пересмотреть устаревшие производственные методы

to streamline production – модернизировать, рационализировать производство



VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1) Why does competition speed up results?


2) Does competition ensure the progress of dynamic economy?


3) What objectives does competition satisfy?


Вариант № 2

I. Дополните предложения данными словами. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

training overpriced free trade overtime unemployment


1. I never buy clothes in that boutique. Everything is so expensive, and the quality isn’t high – I think the clothes are really _______.

2. My firm hopes to do more business abroad, so plans to introduce language _______ for all its staff.

3. Officially, she works thirty-five hours a week but sometimes with _______ she does as many as fifty.

4. People are worried about the rise in _______.

5. _______ is a very good idea in principle, but in practice we need protectionism to help domestic manufacturers to survive.


II. Соедините начало и конец предложения. Запишите их.

1. Should I fill in this form …..

2. If we want to penetrate the US, …..

3. They are trying to launch it by …..

4. We generally take on extra staff …..

5. Have you seen their catalogue? They’ve …..


a. … projecting a sophisticated image.

b. … at Christmas when it’s busy.

c. … brought out a vacuum cleaner just like ours!

d. … we’ll have to modify our strategy.

e. … by hand or should it be typed?

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Предложения переведите.

1. Profit can take many forms although it is typically a monetary reward.

2. The firm was to start its advertising campaign two weeks ago.

3. Total output must rise faster than the increase in population.


IV. Поставьте глаголы-сказуемые в соответствующей видо-временной форме:

1. Quite a large number of definitions (to give) to statistics as a science.

2. The war (to bring) major changes in the programme of statistical work and the methods of observation and processing.

3. All progressive knowledge in the modern world (to tend) to precision.

4. At present many countries (to declare) themselves republics, some of them (to become) independent and encourage the use of local languages.

5. They (to work) there for more than three hours when it (to happen).

6. Nowadays some difficult economic problems (to be solved) on the basis of statistical data.

7. A theory (to be known) to be tested by practice.


V. Сделайте следующие предложения вопросительными:

1. Students need to acquire researchers’ skills. (Why? )

2. The lecture will be given in the lecture hall. (Where? )

3. He passed his exams with good results. (How? )

4. My friend wants to work in the bank after graduation. (Who? )

5. A large part of study time is devoted to fundamental subjects. (What? )

VI. 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст.

Перепишите и письменно переведите заглавие и 1, 3, 4 абзацы текста.



  1. D. Правоспособность иностранцев. - Ограничения в отношении землевладения. - Двоякий смысл своего и чужого в немецкой терминологии. - Приобретение прав гражданства русскими подданными в Финляндии
  2. II. Однородные члены предложения могут отделяться от обобщающего слова знаком тире (вместо обычного в таком случае двоеточия), если они выполняют функцию приложения со значением уточнения.
  3. III. Запятая между однородными членами предложения
  4. S:Укажите верную характеристику предложения: Вода была теплей воздуха, и парное тепло от разгоряченных водяных туш усиливало ощущение одухотворенности природы - море казалось живым.(В.Гроссман)
  5. S:Укажите вид предложения: Рассказать об этом человеке хотелось так, чтобы придерживаться фактов и чтобы было интересно. (Д.Гранин)
  6. Task 3. Напишите предложения в страдательном залоге и переведите их.
  7. The Attributive Clauses. Придаточные определительные предложения
  8. V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различное значение выделенных слов.
  9. V3: Синтаксис и пунктуация сложного предложения
  10. VI. Переведите текст письма на английский язык.
  11. VI. Прочтите текст и переведите его устно, затем перепишите и переведите письменно заглавие и абзацы 1, 3, 6.

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