Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Reserving a room at the hotel
- Hello. Northern Star Hotel. Can I help you?
- Yes, of course. K-L-I-M-E-N-K-O.
- Thank you very much.
- What is your name, please?
- Yes. I’d like to reserve a single room with bathroom, for three nights, from Wednesday, the 12th of February, to Friday, the 14th of February, inclusive.
- Yes, that’s right.
- It’s for Mr. Klimenko.
- Could you spell it, please?
- Shall I send a deposit?
- Let me see … Yes, sir. A single room for three nights with English breakfast, is that right?
- Thank you, sir.
- No. It isn’t necessary, sir.
Ex 13Retell the following story and end it:
Once a businessman arrived in Paris. He stayed at a hotel and as soon as he had done all the formalities there he went for a walk. He asked the receptionist to tell him the way to the post-office because he wanted to send a telegram to his wife. He wrote that he had come to Paris. He also let his wife know the address and the name of his hotel.
As it was his first visit to Paris he enjoyed looking at its streets and squares, visited a museum or two and then went to a small restaurant to have lunch. In the evening he went to the theatre. After the performance was over he called a taxi to go back to the hotel, but he couldn’t remember the name or the address of his hotel. So he …
Ex 14Prepare reports on the following themes:
1. My stay at a hotel.
2. Reserving a room at a hotel.
3. Hotels in Karaganda.
The lexical theme: London.
“Sights of Great Britain (London)”
1. St. Paul’s Cathedral – Собор Святого Павла
2. Westminster Abbey – Вестминстерское аббатство
3. The Houses of Parliament – Парламент
4. Big Ben – Большой Бен (часы на башне парламента)
5. The Tower of London – Лондонский Тауэр
6. The Tower Bridge – Тауэрский мост
7. The British Museum – Британский музей
8. Trafalgar Square – Трафальгарская площадь
9. The Nelson’s Column – Колонна Нельсона
10. The National Gallery – Национальная галерея
11. Piccadilly Circus – Площадь Пикадилли
12. Hyde Park – Гайд парк
13. Buckingham Palace – Букингемский дворец
14. The Royal Exchange – Королевская биржа
15. The Bank of England – английский банк
Ex 1Read the text:
London is the capital of Great Britain and one of the oldest British cities. When Julius Caesar came to Britain in the year 55 B.C., he founded a small settlement on the bank of the Thames. As years passed by, this small settlement grew into a large town and in 1066 became the capital of the country.
Modern London is a very large city. It is one of the largest cities in the world and a large industrial, cultural, scientific, educational and art centre. The historical centre of the capital is the City of London. It is the business centre of London. The Royal Exchange, the Bank of England, most of London’s other banks and offices are situated there, and in the daytime it is a very busy part of the capital. In the evening and night hours, however, the City is almost empty, because the offices and banks are closed, and very few people live in the City.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is a district of rich shops, fine houses and palaces, gardens and parks, theatres, concert halls and restaurants. The East End is the industrial part of London, the district of factories and docks.
London is famous for its architecture. St. Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben, the Tower of London and the Tower Bridge over the Thames have a world-wide fame. There are many other places of interest in London, such as the British Museum, Trafalgar Square with the Nelson Column, the National Gallery, Piccadilly Circus, Hyde Park, Buckingham Palace and many others.
Julius Caesar – Юлий Цезарь
В. С. (Before Christ) – до нашей эры /до рождества Христова/
Britain – Британия
settlement – поселок
a business centre – деловой центр
however – однако же, как бы то ни было
almost – почти
a district – район
Task 1 Answer the following questions:
1. Which of the three cities: London, Karaganda, Moscow is the oldest and which is the youngest? How old is each of them?
2. When did Julius Caesar come to Britain?
3. Did any people live on the bank of the Thames when Julius Caesar came there?
4. When did London become the capital of Great Britain?
5. What kind of city is modern London?
6. What is the historical centre of London?
7. The City of London is the business centre of the capital, isn’t it?
8. Which two buildings mostly represent business in the City of London?
9.Why is the City very busy in the daytime? Why is it very quiet in the evening?
10. What can you say about the West End?
11. What kind of district is the East End?
12. What is London famous for?
13. What places of interest in London have a worldwide fame?
14. Have you ever been to London?
1. What did Julius Caesar found, when he came to Britain in the year 55 B.C.?
2. What is London famous for?
3. What is the richest and the most beautiful part of London?
4. What is the industrial part of London, the district of factories and docks?
5. What is London for Great Britain?
6. What is the historical and the business centre of London
О О О
О О О
Ex 2Using the list of places of interest in London, say as many sentences as you can after the following patterns:
a) ________ is an outstanding architectural monument.
b) ________ is worth seeing.
c) ________ has a world-wide fame.
Ex 3Work “in a chain,” asking and answering questions about visiting places of interest in London. Each time ask about a different place of interest and give a different version of the answer, e. g.:
A (to B): Have you ever been to Westminster Abbey?
В (to A): Oh yes, Ihave,
B (to C): Have you ever been to the Houses of Parliament?
С (to B): 0h, what a question to ask! Of course I have.
C (to D):Have you ever been to the Tower of London?
D (to C): Why, I have been there many times.
D (to E): Have you ever been to the British Museum?
E (to D): N-no, I am sorry to say, I haven’t.
E (to F): Have you ever been to ... etc.
Ex 4Learn the following dialogue:
A: You see, it’s my first visit to London, and I’d like to see the town. Where would you recommend me to go in the first place?
B: Well, if I were you, I should go to Trafalgar Square. It is worth seeing. It has a world-wide fame.
A: Yes, you are right. I have seen Trafalgar Square on a postcard; it is really beautiful.
Ex 5There are many places of interest in London, such as the British Museum, Buckingham Palace, Piccadilly Circus, Hyde Park, the Houses of Parliament and many others. Read, please, some information about them:
The Tower on the north bank of the Thames is one of the most ancient buildings of London. It was founded in the 11th century by William the Conqueror. But each monarch left some kind of personal mark on it. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress, a palace, a prison and royal treasure. It is now a museum of arms and armor.
The Houses of Parliament occupy a magnificent building on the left bank of the Thames in a part of London called West-minster that has long been connected with royalty and government. King Edward the Confessor built a palace beside the River Thames in the 11th century. His successors made the palace their main residence. Gradually Westminster became the centre of government.
Opposite the Houses of Parliament stands Westminster Abbey. A church has stood here since Saxon times, when it was known as West Monastery (Westminster), because of its position to the west of London’s centre. Since William the Conqueror’s times British monarchs have been crowned there, and since the 13th century they have been buried there. Many other famous people are also buried in Westminster Abbey.
St. Paul’s Cathedral is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. Work on Wren’s masterpiece began in 1675 after a Norman church, old St. Paul’s, was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. For 35 years the building of St. Paul’s Cathedral went on, and Wren was an old man before it was finished. From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The Cathedral is full of monuments.
Trafalgar Square was built at the beginning of the 19th century to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Lord Nelson’s statue stands on top of a column in the middle of Trafalgar Square. The large square is a traditional place for people to meet: all sorts of protest meetings are held in Trafalgar Square. Behind Nelson’s Column is the building of the National Gallery, a rich art gallery in which you can find many old masters.
The British Museum is the largest and richest museum in the world. It was founded in 1753 and contains one of the world’s richest collections of antiquities. So, London is rich in its historic places which link the present with the past.
Task 1Entitle each paragraph of the given text.
Task 2Learn the most important information about the sights which are described in the text (1-2 sentences).
Task 3Find the information about the following sights of London for preparation of the brief report at the lesson:
1. Big Ben 2. Buckingham Palace
3. Tower Bridge
Ex 6Read, translate and retell the conversation. Using phrases from conversation, make up a story about sights of London.
Anna: It’s still early, the weather may change.
Linda: Oh, it is wonderful! We are really in London! I want to see everything, to go everywhere!
Grant: When we come back I know that we shall be asked: «Have you seen the Houses of Parliament?» «Did you go to the Tower of London?» «Have you visitedThe National Gallery?» «Did you see Trafalgar Square?»
Leo (in the same manner, very quickly): «Have you been to the British Muse um?» «Did you go to the Zoo?» «Is it true that men are wearing top hats in the streets of London?» «Did you hear the «Boom-Boom» of Big Ben?» «Did you see the London «Bobby» and the London fog?»
Anna: But we can’t be everywhere and see everything at once, can we, Harry?
Harry: Of course not. Everything in good order. And let us begin at the beginning.
Grant: Our first impressions, children, London is old, London is grey. London is a closed book yet. Have we ever seen so many bowler hats, so many umbrellas andso many old-fashioned taxi-cabs in the streets? No, never. And so much traffic, endless along the narrow streets! London is not a bit like Paris.
Harry: Or New York.
Leo: Or Stockholm.
Grant: Or any other capital in the world. Compared to New York, which is all vertical, London seems all flat. Where is the centre? In Paris you have the Arc de Triumph, the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame. Every Roman city is marked by a Forum. Moscow has its Kremlin. But London...
Harry: Yes, London is different and difficult.
Grant: An American tourist was telling me after her first visit to London: «I have heard so much about London! When I was driving in a taxi from the stationthrough London, I asked all the time «Where is it? Where is it? Where is it?» She was meaning where is the centre of it, no doubt.
Leo: Because London is so very English, I suppose, no striking spots at first sight.
Anna: It is like the postcards we’ve seen, the films, and the pictures. Now we are here I can hardly believe it.
Leo: Tell us more about London, Harry.
Grant: It is too late to go out tonight and we are too tired anyway — just look at Linda! So let us talk about London instead. You are going to be our guide, Harry, aren’t you? So do tell us something about its past and so on.
Harry: With pleasure. I rather like talking about it. But in the first place you shouldn’t imagine that London is as grand and attractive as the tourists sometimes make it. It is certainly very old and full of historic associations. Its strong link with the past, its surviving customs and traditions, even the types of people...
Linda: Oh, we did see some of the «survivors», didn’t we?
Anna: You mean those early-Victorians down in the hail?
Harry: Yes. And they are not the only ones. You will see a lot more. We are a strange mixture of past and present, of the old-fashioned and the very modern.
Ex 7Answer the questions of the test, using the information of the quiz:
1. How old is the Tower of London?
a) 500 years old; b) 700 years old; c) 900 years old
2. How long is the River Thames?
a) 238 kilometres long; b) 338 kilometres long; c) 438 kilometres long.
3. How high is Big Ben?
a) 78 metres high; b) 88 metres high; c) 98 metres high.
The London Quiz
Quizmaster: Hello, welcome to the London Quiz. Yes, a quiz about London. Here are six questions about London and this is question one. Question one. What’s this?
1st and 2nd members: It’s the Tower of London.
Quizmaster: Yes, and the question two is “How old is the Tower of London?” Is it 500 years old? Is it 700 years old or is it 900 years old?
1st member: 900.
Quizmaster: Yes. Yes, the Tower of London is 900 years old. Right. Question three. What’s this?
3rd member: The River Thames.
Quizmaster: Yes. Here’s question four. How long is the River Thames? Is it 238 kilometres long? Is it 338 kilometres long? Is it 438 kilometres long?
1st member: I don’t know.
2nd member: I think it’s 338 kilometres long.
Quizmaster: Yes, it is. Here’s question five. What’s this?
1st member: Is that Buckingham Palace?
Quizmaster: No, it isn’t.
2nd member: Is it Big Ben?
Quizmaster: Yes, it is. And question six is “How high is Big Ben?” Is it 78 metres high? Is it 88 metres high? Or is it 98 metres high?
3rd member: 88?
Quizmaster: No. It isn’t 88 metres high.
2nd member: 98?
Quizmaster: Yes, well done! Big Ben is 98 metres high.
Task 1Make up and lead a similar quiz in your group.
Ex 8Learn the following dialogue:
“Sights of London”
A. I say!
B. Yes, what is it?
A. How far is Piccadilly Circus from here?
B. I think it’s something like a mile. You can walk to it if you are not in a hurry.
A. Yes, I think I’d better walk. You see, it’s my first visit to London, so I shall see the town.
B. Then you can go and see Trafalgar Square with the Nelson’s Column. It is worth seeing.
A. Oh yes, I know. It has a world-wide fame. How do I get there?
B. It’s not far. Just walk straight on and take the first turning to the left.
A. Thank you very much. You are very kind.
B. Oh, no thanks at all.
Task 1Name what of listed below sights have not been mentioned in the dialogue:
St. Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, Big Ben, Trafalgar Square, the Nelson’s Column, the National Gallery, Piccadilly Circus, Hyde Park
Task 2Tell, what you know about the sights mentioned in the dialogue.
The lexical theme: Astana.
Ex 1Read the text:
History of Astana
Kazakh steppes have always been the territory of interethnic communication of various nations and cultures. In the middle of the
The second stage was the development of the virgin land. In December 1960 the city numbering about 100,000 people turned into the. centre of the Tselinny territory. Shortly after that in 1961 Akmolinsk changed its name for Tselinograd and grew into a modern and beautiful city with the population of 250,000 citizens. Thousands of volunteers from theformer USSR came to build the city and live here.
In 1992 the city was returned its former name – Akmola. But in 1998 with the transfer of the capital from Almaty to Akmola, the city got a new name – Astana. This decision was promoted by economic, ecological and geographical expediency. Magnificent building of the House of Parliament, a great number of new institutions and restored buildings attract the attention of citizens and tourists. Nowadays, Astana is becoming the international, business and cultural centre not only of Kazakhstan, but of the whole Eurasian continent.
interethnic – межэтнический
millennium — тысячелетие
the Grand Silk Route – Великий шелковый путь
route – путь, маршрут
prosperous – процветающий
trade – торговля
handicrafts – ремесла
substantial – важный, существенный
fortress, - крепость
to boast – гордиться, хвастаться
virgin land – нетронутая ( целинная ) земля
to grow into – превращаться в
a volunteer – доброволец
transfer – перенос
former – прежний
magnificent – величественный, прекрасный
to attract – привлекать
Task 1Answer the following questions:
1. When did the Grand Silk Route run through Akmola steppes?
2. When does the history of Akmolinsk start from?
3. When did Akmolinsk change its name for Tselinograd?
4. Who came to build this city?
5. When did the city get its former name – Akmola?
6. When did it get the name Astana?
7. Why was the capital transferred to Astana?
8. What kind of city is Astana nowadays?
Task 2What has happened these years?
Task 3Complete the table:
Task 4Learn the information from the table.
Ex 2Translate the information about sights of Astana. Using the given texts, prepare a report on one of the themes:
Байтерек расположен довольно далеко от центра города. «Байтерек» на казахском языке означает «дерево жизни».
На третьем этаже находится смотровая площадка.
Байтерек представляет собой шар с высокими колоннами. Шар серебристого цвета, а колонны белые. Байтерек стал символом столицы независимого Казахстана.
высота – height
смотровая площадка – viewing side
этаж – storey, floor (с порядковыми числительными)
демонстрационный зал – showroom
аквариум – aquarium
отлитый из – founded from
тропический – tropical
отпечаток руки – handprint
Этот огромный аквариум в виде океанского дна. Здесь можно увидеть многие виды рыб, даже такие ядовитые и опасные для человека, как акулы, скаты и медузы. О каждом виде тропических рыб можно получить информацию, помещенную рядом с аквариумами.
На втором этаже «Думана» находится кинозал, в котором демонстрируются стереофильмы. Они длятся всего 5-7 минут, но несмотря на это, у вас захватит дух, и вы невольно вскрикнете, когда огромная, страшная акулья челюсть появится прямо перед вашими глазами!
Посетители могут отдохнуть и перекусить в кафе тут же, не выходя из «Думана». Многие приобретают оригинальные сувениры в киосках, расположенных повсюду.
«Думан» стал первым океанариумом в центре континента Евразия на огромном расстоянии от морей и океанов.
аквариум – aquarium
акула – shark
челюсть – chaps
океанский – oceanic
скат – ray, skate
появиться – to appear
дно – bottom
медуза – jellyfish, medusa
перекусить – to take a snack
в виде – in shape of
кинозал – cinema theatre
сувенир – souvenir
океанариум – oceanarium
длиться – to last
киоск – kiosk
ядовитый – poisonous
захватывает дух – it takes one’s breath away
континент Евразия – Eurasian continent
опасный – dangerous
вскрикнуть – to cry out
на огромном расстоянии – a great way off
Монумент «Дружба народов»
Автор: Сакен Нарынов
Дата открытия 1 мая 2003 года
Монумент представляет собой чашу с фонтанами, в центре которого располагается бронзовая скульптура из трех фигур высотой 8 метров. Ветви символизируют узы дружбы, мир и согласие.
Рядом со скульптурой – фонтаны. Эти фонтаны символизируют этносы и народы Казахстана.
Гости столицы увидят монумент на пересечении проспекта Республики и улицы имени Омарова. В дни праздников фонтаны работают с музыкой и красивой подсветкой внизу.
открытие (памятника) – unveiling
узы – bonds, ties
проспект – avenue
чаша – bowl
мир – peace
внизу – down
фонтан – fountain
согласие – harmony
высота – height
этнос – ethnical group
ветвь – branch
народы Казахстана – peoples of Kazakhstan
символизировать – to symbolize
пересечение – crossing
Автор: художник и скульптор Арман Бектасов
Дата открытия: 10 июня 2000 года
Бата – с казахского «благословение», так образно назвал свое творение автор. Всех приезжающих и покидающих Астану будет приветствовать, и провожать этот символ доброго напутствия.
Памятник символизирует порог «босага» – начало пути. Там же можно увидеть «бесик» – колыбель, символ жизни. Основанием служит «тайтуяк» – благополучие и достаток в семье.
Вода в виде фонтана служит источником жизни и является логическим дополнением к символам быта.
скульптор – sculptor
приезжающие и покидающие Астану – arriving and leaving Astana people
открытие (памятника) – unveiling
приветствовать – to welcome
колыбель – cradle
благословение – blessing
провожать – to see off
символ – symbol
образно – picturesquely
доброе напутствие – good wishes
oснование – base
творение - creation
порог – threshold
благополучие – wellbeing
достаток – prosperity
источник – source
фонтан – fountain
логическое дополнение – logical addition
в виде – in shape of
быт – mode of life
Ex 3Answer the questions:
1. Do you know the town you live in very well?
2. What number bus do you take when you go to the Zoo (Public Library, Central Stadium, etc.)?
3. What kind of public transport do you like best?
4. What is the usual interval between buses?
5. From what time in the morning till what time at night do trams and buses run?
6. Are the traffic rules in Britain different from those in other European countries?
7. What are the traffic lights used for?
8. What is the main street in your town?
9. What are the most common expressions we use when asking our way?
10. How long does it take you to get to the Stadium (Palace of Sports, Zoo, etc.)?
11. Are there any conductors on buses and trams in Moscow (St. Petersburg, Kiev, Astana, your town, etc.)?
Ex 4Using the given adjectives, make up a story about your city:
picturesque, quaint, packed, historic, lively, spacious, elegant, magnificent, atmospheric, bustling, crowded, shabby, deserted (at night).
The lexical theme: Customs and traditions. Holidays in the UK.
Ex 1Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
Ways of celebrating differ according to customs and religions of the world. For example, before my trips to the East I (to learn) that people in Moslem societies celebrate New Year by wearing new clothes. It became true.
The same year I happened to observe how Southeast Asians (to release) birds and turtles to assure themselves good luck in the twelve months ahead.
My Italian friends (to throw) the old furniture out before New Year.
When I celebrated New Year in India my neighbour (he was Hindu) before going to bed (to leave) shrines next to his bed so he could see beautiful objects at the start of New Year.
Jewish people consider the day holy. Once before doing sightseeing in Israel I (to participate) in a religious ceremony at a meal with special foods.
Following year I visited my colleagues in Japan. Japanese (to prepare) rice cakes at a social event the week before New Year.
The last New Year I saw in China. Before New Year many Chinese families (to burn) the picture of their God, Tsao Chen, to bring good luck. When New Year’s Day (to come) they put a new picture of Tsao Chen on the wall.
So, “So many countries so many customs”.
Ex 2Read and translate the basic information about popular holidays of Great Britain:
Easter is a religious holiday, but many follow old traditions during the holiday such as dyeing hard-boiled eggs, and making presents of chocolate eggs, rabbits and chicks. Many parents organize Easter egg hunts, in which children look for dyed eggs hidden around the house or in the garden.
Christmas is a very great religious holiday. On this day many go to Church services to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. There are many Christmas traditions, for example to give presents to the children with the help of Santa Claus, to exchange presents and Christmas greeting cards, to decorate a Christmas tree with toys and small lights.
It is not such important holiday in England as Christmas. Some people don’t celebrate it at all. Many people have New Year parties. At midnight the people listen to the chimes of Big Ben, drink a toast to the New Year. In London crowds usually gather round the statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus and welcome the New Year.
St. Valentine’s Day
For centuries it (February 14th) has been a day for choosing sweethearts and exchanging Valentine cards. On this day, people show their friends, relatives and loved ones that they care. People send candy or flowers to those whom they love. There are several legends about St. Valentine’s Day. One of the legends says that Valentine was an Italian bishop. He was put into prison, because he secretly married couples contrary to the laws of the Roman empire. He was beheaded on February 14th.
May Spring Festival
It is celebrated on the 1st of May mostly by children and young people. It is celebrated with garlands of flowers, dancing and games on the village green, where they erect a maypole – a tall pole decorated with flowers and ribbons. The most beautiful girl is crowned with a garland of flowers as the May Queen.
Spring Bank Holiday
It is celebrated on the last Monday in May. It is an official holiday, when all the offices are closed and people don’t go to work. Many people go to the country on this day and have picnics.
Late Summer Bank Holiday
It is an official holiday, and it is celebrated on the last Monday in August. During the August Bank Holiday townsfolk usually go to the country and to the seacoast. The August Bank Holiday is also a time for big sports meetings at large stadiums. And most traditionally, there are large fairs with swings, shows and every kind of other entertainments.
Guy Fawkes Night
It commemorates the discovery of the so-called Gunpowder Plot. The story says that there was a plot to destroy the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I during the ceremony of opening Parliament on November 5th, 1605. The plot was organized by a group of Roman Catholics. But the gunpowder was found together with Guy Fawkes, who was to set off the explosion. He was hanged later. This day is traditionally celebrated with fireworks and a bonfire, on which the figure of a man called Guy is burnt.
to commemorate – праздновать
bonfire – костер
fair – ярмарка
swings – качели
chimes – колокола
a statue – статуя
Task 1Answer the following questions:
1. How do people celebrate the New Year? What do people do in Piccadilly Circus?
2. What is St. Valentine’s Day? When is it celebrated? What is a Valentine card?
3. Who celebrates Easter? What do people celebrate on this day? How is Easter celebrated? What are Easter eggs?
4. When and how is the May Spring Festival celebrated?
5. When is the Spring Bank Holiday celebrated? What is the traditional way of celebrating it?
6. When is the August Bank Holiday celebrated? What events are organized on this day?
7. What does the holiday of Guy Fawkes Night commemorate? When is it marked? Why do children feel especially happy on Guy Fawkes Night?
8. Christmas is the main holiday of the year, isn’t it? What are Christmas carols? Where do people sing them? How do people usually decorate their houses for Christmas?
Task 2Prepare a report about anyone, above described, holiday.
Task 3Tell about holidays which are celebrated in your country.
Ex 3Learn the poem. What holiday is the poem devoted to?
Hear the sledges with the bells —
What a world of merriment their melody foretells!
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,
In the icy air of night!
While the stars, that over sprinkle
All the heavens seem to twinkle
With a crystalline delight;
Keeping time, time, time
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells
From the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells.
From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.
Task 1Make up literary translation of the poem.
Task 2Find the information about the author of the poem.
Ex 4Read the text:
Christmas is a joyful religious holiday when Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. The Christmas story comes from the Bible. An angel appeared to shepherds and told them that a Savior had been born to Mary and Joseph in a stable in Bethlehem.
Today Christmas is the most popular holiday in Great Britain and the USA. Before Christmas groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charity and sing carols – traditional Christmas songs.
The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December – Christmas’ Eve. Traditionally this is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at the end of their beds, hoping that Santa Claus (or Father Christmas) will come down the chimney with toys and sweets (he is represented as a kindly man, dressed in a red suit, with white beard). Most children believe that Santa Claus lives at the North Pole.
To people all over the world, Christmas is a season of giving and receiving presents. Every family sends and receives many Christmas cards. There is a robin on a card, as it’s a Christmas bird. For Christmas dinner every family has turkey, crackers, cookies and Christmas pudding. At Christmas Eve adults drink eggnog, a drink of cream, milk, sugar, beaten eggs and brandy or rum.
The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday. This is the time to visit friends and relatives. Christmas holidays are the busiest times of the year at airports, train stations and bus depots. This means that the houses will be full of cousins, aunts and uncles.
joyful – радостный
Savior – Спаситель
Bethlehem – Вифлеем
a stable – конюшня
a shepherd – пастух
charity – благотворительность
a carol – рождественская песня (гимн)
eve – канун
fun – веселье, радость
to decorate – украшать
a chimney – дымовая труба
a fireplace – камин
sleigh – сани
a robin – малиновка
crackers – хлопушки, фейерверки
rum - ром
Task 1Match the words and their definitions:
Ex 5Read, translate and end the story:
The night was bitter cold and still. The old people said they had not seen such a cold winter for thirty or forty years. Trees, roofs, fences, roads, fields and forests were all covered with thick white snow.
There were many stars in the dark sky. The big round moon shone with bluish light. Long silvery moonbeams lay across the snow, making it sparkle like fine diamond dust.
Christmas Eve was coming ...
Ex 6Learn and sing the Christmas song:
Dashing through the snow, in a one-horse open sleigh,
Over the fields we go, laughing all the way!
Bells on bobtail ring, making spirits bright,
What fun it is to ride and sing a sleighing song tonight!
Jingle bells, jingle bells, jingle all the way.
Oh, what fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh!
Jingle bells, jingle bells, jingle all the way.
Oh, what fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh!
Ex 7Read the text:
The greatest Christian holiday of the year is Easter, which falls on a spring Sunday that varies from year to year. (This holiday never comes before March 22 (April 4) or after April 25 (May 8).
Good Friday is the day that Jesus Christ died and Easter Sunday – the day that He was resurrected.
On Easter Sunday, children and their parents attend church, generally wearing new spring clothes; the churches are beautifully decorated with white lilies.
The day before people color eggs, which they place in green, yellow, and pink baskets. The egg is the symbol of life and the resurrection. (The Romans believed that “All life comes from an egg”. In ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome and Persia eggs were dyed for spring festivals. In medieval Europe, beautifully decorated eggs were given as gifts).
Families hold reunions, and baked ham and chicken are often served for the Easter dinner, with chocolate bunnies for dessert. The Easter Bunny is a symbol of fertility.
In Roman Catholic churches, as well as in other Christian churches, an unusually large candle often stands on the Gospel altar for the Easter service. It is called the “Paschal” candle, because it is used during the Paschal season, the forty days following Easter.
to resurrect – воскреснуть
to attend – посещать
a church – церковь
to colour / to dye – красить
medieval – средневековый
gift – подарок, дар
a reunion – встреча в кругу семьи
fertility – плодородие
an altar – алтарь
ancient – древний, античный
Task 1Decide if the sentences are True (T) or False (F):
1. The greatest political holiday of the year in GB and USA is Easter.
2. Good Friday is the day that Jesus Christ was resurrected.
3. Easter Sunday is the day that Jesus Christ died.
4. The day before Easter people roast turkey.
5. They often have chocolate bunnies for dessert.
6. An unusually large candle standing on the Gospel altar for the Easter service is called the “Paschal” candle.
The lexical theme: Customs and traditions. Holidays in the USA.
Ex 1Read and translate the basic information about popular holidays of the USA:
Martin Luther King’s Day
It is celebrated on the Third Monday of every January beginning in 1986. Martin Luther King was a black clergyman who became famous all over the world for his campaigns to win full civil rights for the black people in the USA, because black people were discriminated in different spheres of life. For example, black people were not allowed to eat in the same places with white people, their children could not study at schools together with white children. The whole world was shocked when King was killed in 1968. The Congress decided to make the third Monday in January a holiday in honour of Martin Luther King.
At first it was celebrated on February 22, the birthday of George Washington, first president of the USA. In most states Americans also celebrated Abraham Lincoln’s birthday on February 12. In 1970 the American Congress decided to honour all past presidents of the country on a single day which was called Presidents` Day, and which is observed on the third Monday in February.
It is celebrated on the fourth Monday of every May, when the Americans honour the dead. They remember the dead of all wars and all other dead. Special ceremonies are held in cemeteries, at monuments for the war dead, in churches, schools, or other public places.
The fourth of July is known as Independence Day when the USA was proclaimed an independent republic in 1776. It is a very great holiday marked by parades, flying of flags all over the country and picnics.
The New World was discovered by Christopher Columbus on October 12, 1492. Most countries of the American continents celebrate this discovery on October 12, but in the USA Columbus Day is celebrated on the second Monday in October. A great parade takes place in New York on this day.
It is celebrated on November 11. This was the date when the First World War ended in 1918. On Veterans` Day the Americans honour veterans of all the wars in which the USA took part. The President of the USA places a wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery which is situated at Washington, D.C. Organizations of war veterans organize parades and different ceremonies, collect money for veterans, invalids and other people in need.
Halloween is a festival that takes place on October 31. In the USA children wear costumes and masks and go trick-or-treating. Many of them carve jack-o’-lanterns out of pumpkins. Fortunetelling and storytelling about ghosts and witches are popular activities.
Halloween developed from new year festivals and festivals of the dead. Christian church established a festival on November 1 called All Saints’ Day so that people could continue to celebrate their festivals. The Mass said on All Saints’ Day was called Allhallowmass. The day before All Saints’ Day was known all hallows’ Eve or All Hallow e’en.
The American Thanksgiving began as a feast of thanksgiving almost four hundred years ago. In 1620, a religious community sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the New World. They arrived too late to grow a rich harvest. Moreover, half the colony died from disease. The following spring the Iroquois Indians taught them how to grow corn, hunt and fish. In the autumn of 1621 they got a beautiful harvest of corn, barley, beans and pumpkins. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so they planned a feast.
After the USA gained independence, the Congress recommended one yearly day of thanksgiving for the whole country. Later, Abraham Lincoln suggested the last Thursday in November to be the day of thanksgiving.
to celebrate – праздновать
a clergyman - священник
civil rights – гражданские права
in honour – в честь
to observe - отмечать
dead – мертвый
a war - война
a cemetery - кладбище
a church – церковь
a wreath – венок
a tomb - могила
independence - независимость
to be proclaimed – быть провозглашенным
to take part in something - принимать участие в ч.-л.
in need – в нужде
Halloween – Хэллоуин; канун Дня всех святых
to trick-or-treat – выпрашивать угощение
jack-o’-lantern – фонарь
fortunetelling - гадание
a ghost- привидение
a witch - ведьма
to establish - установить
a mass - месса
eve - канун
Thanksgiving Day – День Благодарения
thanksgiving – воздаяние благодарности
harvest - урожай
to settle - поселиться
disease - болезнь
Iroquois Indians – индейцы из племени ирокезов
barley - ячмень
pumpkin – тыква
Task 1Fill in the blank with the correct word:
1. Martin Luther King was against ____ , and his campaigns were peaceful demonstrations.
2. On Veteran’s Day the President of the United States ____ ____ on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
3. On Memorial Day the Americans honour ____ .
4. In 1776, the USA ____ ____ an independent republic.
5. The New World was discovered by ____ ____ on October 12, 1492.
Task 2Complete the table:
Task 3Write the names of American holidays which are also observed in many countries of the world.
Task 4Make the comparative analyze of how the following holidays are celebrated in Great Britain, the USA and Kazakhstan:
Easter, Christmas, New Year, St. Valentine’s Day
Ex 2Read the text:
The name “Halloween” comes from two words: “Hallo(s)” – meaning “Holy” in the old English and “Eve” – the evening before certain holiday. So Halloween is the evening before All Saint’s Day.
October, the 31st was the eve of the Celtic New Year. The Celts were the ancestors of the present-day Irish, Welsh and Scottish people. On this day ghosts walked and mingled with the living, or so the Celts thought. Hoping that the ghosts would leave peacefully before midnight of the new year the people carried the food to the edge of town and left it for them.
In the weeks before Halloween Americans decorate windows of houses and schools with silhouettes of witches and black cats. On the 31st of October, dozens of children dressed in costumes knock on their neighbours’ door and yell “Trick or Treat” when the door opens. Pirates and princesses, ghosts and popular heroes hold bags open to catch the candy or other goodies that the neighbours drop in and they try to guess who is under masks. Certain pranks such as soaping car windows and tipping over garbage cans are expected.
Witches flying on broomsticks with black cats, ghosts, goblins and skeletons are all symbols of Halloween. Black and orange are traditional Halloween colours. Pumpkins are also a symbol of Halloween. People carve eyes, noses and mouths on the pumpkins and put candles into them making a trivial vegetables into a jack-o-lantern. Traditional Halloween dishes are Pumpkin seeds, caramel apples and popcorn balls.
an ancestor – предок
a ghost – приведение, призрак
a witch – ведьма
trick – хитрость
treat – угощение
to yell – кричать
candy – сладости
to guess – угадывать
a broomstick – метла ведьмы
a pumpkin – тыква
to carve – вырезать
a candle – свеча
seeds – семена, зерна
Task 1Find ten hidden words connected with Halloween.Look horizontally and vertically:
Task 2Learn “Trick or treat”:
Trick or treat
Trick or treat, trick or treat,
Give us something good to eat!
Give us candy, give us cake,
Give us something sweet to take.
Give us cookies, fruit and gum,
Hurry up and give us some.
You had better do it quick
Or we’ll surely play a trick!
Trick or treat, trick or treat,
Give us something good to eat!
Ex 3 Fill in the blanks with necessary words:
symbol, turkey, corn, Thursday, Indians, decorate, 1620, harvest, thanks, dinner
The last …….. of November in America is Thanksgiving Day. The people…….. their houses with autumn fruits and flowers and prepare traditional American food: roast ……, potatoes and pumpkin. It’s rather like Christmas, but what are people celebrating? What are they giving …… for?
In …. the first colonists came to America and began a new life there (the Pilgrims settled in what is now the state of Massachusetts). It was a very hard life. Many people were sick and died during the first winter in the cold. In spring they started to farm the land, their neighbours ……. taught them how to grow ….. In autumn of 1621 the colonists had their first …….. They wanted to thank God, so they had a Thanksgiving …… for all the people. It lasted three days. Wild turkeys were on the table of this meal and since then the turkey has become a …… of Thanksgiving Day (corn (or maize), pumpkins and cranberry sauce as well).
Task 1Entitle the text.
Ex 4Read and learn the poem. What holiday is it timed to?
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