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Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Table 1. Evolution of the Information Industry.
These inventions have greatly impacted our lives through the creation of new industries and the easy access to information around the world. However, none of these discoveries has impacted our lives as greatly as the integrated circuit (IC). The IC has created the information age.
Already the IC has had a profound impact on our society. The slide rule, mechanical calculator, and typewriter industries are dead and their products have been relegated to museums. Text, data, graphics, voice and video can be electronically processed, transmitted, and stored at a cost most citizens can afford. The boundaries between the traditional information industries are being blurred, and their survival is in doubt. Already numerous collaborative agreements and mergers are taking place among these industries. Will the photographic industry survive in the information age? Will the printing industry go the way of the dinosaur? Telephone, cable, and broadcasting networks are fighting for survival in the information age. Most likely the traditional information industries will be realigned along the functional lines in Table 2. There is no doubt that we will witness profound changes in the traditional information industries over the next decade.
Even more profound is the impact that the IC has had on global politics, e.g. the formation of the European Economic Community at the expense of national autonomy, the push toward open markets, the rise of global industries, and the decline of manufacturing jobs.
Wars will be fought in the information age, both bloody and unbloody, but ultimately in the information age we will see more transparent national boundaries, less national autonomy, and a higher world order. This is so because with the powerful technologies at our disposal, this is the only path to survival as a people. It will not be an easy road. Change never is.
Globally industry and governments are going through a period of rebirth, a period of a global renaissance. This renaissance is the result of the scientific discoveries and technological advances of the past two centuries, the IC having perhaps the most profound impact on society that the world has ever experienced.
I. Read the text ‘The Information Age’. Write out all the words you don’t know. Look them up in the dictionary.
II. Find in the text ‘The Information Age’ the sentence with the Absolute Participle Construction. Translate it.
III. Make a written translation of the text ‘The Information Age’.
IV. Speak about the evolution of the information industry. Use Table 1.
Situated south of Moscow in the central part of the East European plain on the Middle Russian Hills, the Tula region covers an area of 25,700km (1.5% of Russia’s territory). The region’s territory embraces 21 cities and towns and 50 urban settlements. Total population is 1,840,000, out of which urban population accounts for 81,4%.
The center of the region is the city of Tula with the population over half a million. Tula, which is first mentioned in the chronicles in 1146, was founded on the banks of the Upa river.
In the Middle Ages it was the central strategic point in the defense of Moscow. This had a decisive influence on the specifics of the region’s industrial development.
Tula has long been famous for its blacksmiths and gunsmiths. The trade of the blacksmiths began to develop in Tula in the 16th century. Tula blacksmiths specialized in making rifles The whole families and even streets were engaged in making this or that part of the rifle. That is why many streets of Tula are still called after the parts of the rifle – Zamochnaya, Kurkovaya, Stvolnaya, etc.
By the 16th –17th century, Tula had grown into a developed center of weapon-making crafts and metal treatment. In 1712 following a decree issued by Peter the Great a state gun-making plant was founded in Tula.
Tula was the first place in Russia to develop ferrous metallurgy and metal-processing industry. In metal-processing Tula craftsmen acquired great skill. But most of the enterprises were handicraft artels and small plants producing samovars and different handmade goods.
With the development of capitalism in Russia industrial enterprises in Tula increased in number. By the end of the 19th century Tula had about 200 enterprises with 13 thousand workers.
At present there are many plants and factories in Tula.
Being part of the Central Economic Region, the Tula region has close economic ties with other regions of the Russian Federation.
The basic industries are machine-building, chemical, ferrous metallurgy, building materials industry, coal mining, light and food industries, power engineering and electronics. Machine-building and metal-working account for 21.9% of the total industrial output, chemistry and petrochemistry 20.8%, metallurgy 17.1%, electric power generation 11.9%, food industry 13%, and light industry 3.9%.
The machine-building branch is represented by large enterprises manufacturing agricultural machinery, machine tools, equipment for the light and food industries, units and parts for gas pipelines, pumps, cranes, construction and transportation machinery, domestic gas fittings, scooters etc. Chemical industry enterprises produce fertilizers, synthetic rubber, plastics and plastic articles, detergents, synthetic vitamins and other products. The old gun-making plant produces hunting rifles and sport guns which help our sportsmen to win victories at international competitions.
The Tulachermet Concern, a leading metallurgical enterprise in Russia, has made a great contribution to the development of world metallurgy. The enterprise has been the first in the world to master the method of continuous steel casting, the process of metal powder manufacture, plasma spraying, and production of alloys with specific properties.
The old traditions of making famous Tula rifles, samovars, bayans (accordions) and spice cakes live on.
Primary attention in agriculture is given to the production of grain, potatoes, sugar beet, milk and meat.
Today’s Tula is not only an industrial but also a cultural, scientific and educational center of our country. Tula has many educational establishments such as Tula State University and Tula State Pedagogical University, many colleges and secondary schools.
Dozens of research institutes and design bureaus concentrate a considerable scientific potential. These institutions are engaged in long-term research in technologies of machine-building, metallurgy, polymers, control systems, town planning etc.
The city has four theatres, a regional philharmonic society, some clubs, palaces of culture, libraries, and publishing houses that issue about a hundred newspapers and magazines.
Tula has many places of interest, the Museum of Arms is well known not only in our town. It was established in 1724. In the museum we can see the products of skillful Tula gunsmiths. It has models of Russian weapons beginning with the Kulikovo Battle in 1380 to the years of the Great Patriotic War. There are also tiny engravings which one can see only through a microscope. The museum of Regional Studies is of great interest too. It presents to its visitors the heroic past of our town. The Art Gallery has a collection of rare pictures, sculptures and items of applied arts.
Not far from Tula is Yasnaya Polyana. Here the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy lived and worked for almost all his life. Now it is a museum. Many people not only from our country but also abroad visit Yasnaya Polyana every day.
The Kremlin, the Victory Square with its eternal flame, the monument to the defenders of Tula, the vast central park belong to the sights of Tula. The picture will not be complete if we forget our central stadium with its sports play grounds, the indoor stadium and the famous cycle-drome.
The appearance of our city has greatly changed. From a dirty provincial town with wooden houses and narrow streets it has turned into a modern city. The main street of our city and many other tree-lined streets are always full of people and the traffic is rather heavy (busy). In the streets we can see many cars, buses, trolleybuses, trams, taxis.
Tula grows from day to day. Old houses and back-yards have almost completely disappeared giving way to new high buildings. New modern-style districts have appeared in the former suburbs of Tula.
The citizens of Tula are proud of their city which is becoming more beautiful from day to day.
I. Read the text 'Tula'. Find the sentences that might be the answers to the questions below:
1. When was Tula founded?
2. What river is Tula situated on?
3. What is the population of Tula at present?
4. What had a decisive influence on the industrial development of Tula?
5. Who founded a state gun-making plant in Tula?
6. What are the basic industries in Tula?
7. What is Tula famous for?
8. What sights are there in Tula?
II. Write the following words in transcription. Translate them:
acquire, appearance, area, artel, avenue, blacksmith, circus, craftsman, cycle, enterprise, eternal, issue, model, museum, provincial, region, sculpture, sightseeing, society, specialize, square, suburb.
III. Translate the following a)word combinations; b)sentences:
a) 1. the central part of Russia;
2. to cover an area;
3. on the banks of the Upa river;
4. the parts of the rifle;
5. a decree issued by Peter the Great;
6. a state gun-making plant;
7. ferrous metallurgy;
8. metal processing industry;
9. handmade goods;
10. to master the method of continuous steel casting;
11. machine tools;
12. metal powder manufacture.
b) 1. Tula was founded in 1146.
2. Tula has long been famous for its blacksmiths and gunsmiths.
3. Tula blacksmiths specialized in making rifles.
4. The whole families were engaged in making this or that part of a rifle.
5. Many streets in Tula are called after the parts of a rifle.
6. Tula craftsmen acquired great skill.
7. At present there are many plants and factories in Tula.
8. The old gun-making plant produces hunting rifles and sport guns.
9. The machine-building plants produce various machine tools.
10. In the Tula region there are many coal mining enterprises.
IV. Complete the sentences:
V. Fill in the missing words.
1. Many streets of Tula /называются по/ the parts of a rifle.
2. The citizens of Tula /гордятся/ their city which becomes more /красивым/ from day to day.
3. Tula is a modern city with many industrial /предприятиями/ such as /машиностроительные, металлообрабатывающие, горнодобыва-ющие, химические/ and others.
4. /Памятник защитникам/ of Tula with its eternal flame stands in the Victory Square.
5. The Kremlin, the vast central park, /цирк/ and many monuments belong to the /достопримечательностям/ of our city.
6. The Arms Museum /известен/ not only in our city.
7. /Уличное движение/ in our city is rather /оживленное/.
8. There are many /высоких/ buildings in the new districts of our city.
VI. Say in English. Use the given word combinations:
To be proud of
1. Я горжусь своим факультетом.
2. Мы гордимся своим университетом.
3. Мой друг гордится своим братом.
4. Рабочие гордятся своим ремеслом.
To be famous for
1. Наш город славится своими ружьями.
2. Наш край (область) славится известными писателями.
3. Площадь Победы известна своим памятником и вечным огнем.
4. Тула известна своими самоварами и пряниками.
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