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I. Fill in the following chart with the appropriate information.
Illustrate each case of power with your examples from real life.
An essential part of leadership or management is to influence the people you manage so that they do what you want them to do. The influence of a leader will depend on a variety of factors including their personality and of those around them. We will refer to the people that the leader is managing or leading as followers. The influence of a leader over his followers is often referred to as power. Below we will explore the different types of power a leader may have.
This type of influence is created when the leader is able to offer a reward to his followers for completing tasks behaving in a certain manner. Rewards in the workplace can take a variety of forms from chocolates, gift vouchers and holidays to promotions, commission and pay rises. This reward will only be effective if:
Firstly - the reward appeals to the followers. As you are aware there is no point offering chocolate as a reward to somebody who likes crisps. This is because they will not view chocolate as a reward, so there is no incentive to complete the task.
Secondly – the followers have to believe that the leader will give them (or arrange for them to receive) the reward promised once the task is completed by them.
Thirdly – the reward should be proportionate to the task the follower has to complete. For example it would be disproportionate to reward an employee with a promotion for making a cup of tea. Similarly a follower would feel undervalued, if rewarded with a $5 gift voucher after they spent six months doing their managers job without a pay rise.
This type of power needs to be used carefully to prevent followers becoming accustomed to rewards and refusing to complete routine tasks without a reward. Generally rewards should not be offered, to follower employees to complete duties which are a normal part of their role. This is because as an employee they are under a contractual obligation to complete these tasks and they are already rewarded for this through their salary.
The other reason why rewards should be offered carefully is that frequent use can reduce the impact or influence that offering a reward initially had on the follower. Followers will soon tire of the reward especially if the reward is small for example chocolates or flowers.
Coercive (принудительный) Power
This is the opposite of reward power because this power is based on the leader having control over what happens if followers do not act as required. If followers do not undertake the action required, the leader will impose a penalty. Penalties take a variety of forms including withdrawal of privileges, job losses, verbal abuse, and delayed or loss of promotion. In all cases the leader will need to choose the penalty carefully to prevent breaking the law or being the subject of an employment tribunal.
Coercive power requires followers to believe that the leader has the ability to impose the stated penalty. Also the penalty has to be something that the followers do not want to have imposed on them. For example a penalty results in coffee being banned is unlikely to influence a tea drinker.
Finally (just as the reward in reward power should be proportional to the action taken by the follower), the penalty should be proportionate to the action not completed by the follower. For example it would be disproportionate to fire an employee follower the first time they do not return from their lunch break at the stated time. Similarly it is disproportionate to reduce the wages of an employee follower that hasn’t completed their duties over a six month period by £20 when their monthly pay is £1000.
Coercive powers should be used carefully; overuse can lead to unhappy employee followers.Unhappy followers can be negative or unmotivated; they may resign or adopt a “work to rule” attitude. Work to rule is where employees refuse to undertake any duties (or adopt working practices) that are not stated in their contract.
This is the power that a leader has when the followers believe that the leader has “a right” to instruct them and that they have an obligation to follow instructions. Sometimes legitimacy power is created by the leader’s job title (such as captain, doctor, or area manager), combined with the follower’s belief that the job title gives the leader the right to give them orders.
This is created when the followers believe that the leader possess qualities that they admire and would like to possess. The followers identify with their leader and attempt to copy their leader. As referent power is dependant on how the follower views the personality of their leader, a leader will not have referent power over every follower they lead. Some leaders will have referent power over just a few, whilst others such as Gandhi have lead millions through their personality and charisma.
As the title suggests a leader has expert power when the followers believe that the leader has “expert” knowledge or skills that are relevant to the job or tasks they have to complete. Often an experienced member of the team or staff in an organization can have expert power even though they are not a supervisor or manager.
II. Make the summary of the text as in the example and learn it by heart.
· Reward power needs follower to believe leader will reward them.
· Coercive power needs follower to believe leader will punish them.
· Legitimate power needs follower to believe leader has right to instruct them.
· Referent power need follower to believe leader has desirable qualities.
· Expert power need follower to believe leader is an expert.
Whether the follower’s beliefs are correct is irrelevant, the beliefs alone will determine the type of power, a leader has over the follower.
Each of the leadership powers can be used by themselves or combined so that the leader has maximum influence. The leader will therefore need to think carefully about which power to use.
The use of one power could lead to a decrease in another for example coercive power (which necessitates the use of punishment) may decrease the leaders referent power , if it causes the followers to belief that the leader has qualities that aren’t admirable.
III. Find antonyms of the following words: a reward, to complete, effective, proportionate, to refuse, frequent, initially, to reduce, to return, dependant, supervisor.
IV. State if the sentences are True or False:
You are going to hear two people discussing what makes a good leader. Listen carefully to what they say, and answer the questions:
Does the first speaker think that people who study business can learn how to become a leader?
What is leadership, according to the first speaker?
What word does the second speaker use to describe leadership?
The first speaker mentions two famous people from history. Who are they? (p.19)
I. Read for general understanding and try to guess what the text is about:
Ø proper organization of a manager’s job
Ø people’s abilities and talents
Ø “good” human relations and proper working relations between people
Ø promotion system
Ø a manager’s integrity
The Spirit of organization
Management by objective tells a manager what he ought to do. The proper organization of his job enables him to do it. But it is the spirit of organization that determines whether he will do it. It is the spirit that motivates, that calls upon a man’s reserves of dedication and effort that decides whether he will give his best or do just enough to get by.
It is the purpose of an organization to “make common man do uncommon things” – this phrasing is Lord Beveridge’s. No organization can depend on genius; the supply is always scarce and always unpredictable. But it is the test of an organization that it makes ordinary human beings perform better than they are capable of, that it bring out whatever strength there is in its members and use it to make all other members perform more and better. It is the test of an organization that it neutralizes the weakness of its members.
Altogether the test of good spirit is not that people “get along together”; it is performance, not conformance. “Good human relations” not grounded in the satisfaction of good performance and the harmony of proper working relations are actually poor human relations and result in poor spirit. They do not make people grow; they make them conform and contract. I shall never forget the university president who once said to me: “It is my job to make it possible for the first-rate teacher to teach. Whether he gets along with his colleagues or with me – and very few of really good teachers do either – is irrelevant. We certainly have a collection of problem children here – but do they teach.” And when his successor substituted for this a policy of “peace and harmony”, both the performance and the spirit of the faculty rapidly went to pieces.
There are five areas in which practices are required to ensure the right spirit throughout management organization:
1) There must be high performance requirements; no condoning of poor or mediocre performance; and rewards must be based on performance.
2) Each management job must be a rewarding job in itself rather than just a step in the promotion ladder.
3) There must be rational and just promotion system.
4) Management needs a “Charter” spelling out clearly who has the power to make life-and-death decisions affecting a manager; and there should be some way for a manager to appeal to a higher court.
5) In its appointments management must demonstrate that it realizes that integrity is the absolute requirement of a manager, the one quality that he has to bring with him and cannot be expected to acquire later on.
A man should never be appointed to a managerial position if his vision focuses on people’s weakness rather than on their strengths. He should be a realist; and no one is less realistic than the cynic. A man should never be appointed if he is more interested in the question: “Who is right?” Management should never appoint a man who considers intelligence more important than integrity.
The man with whom a man works, and especially his subordinates, knows in a few weeks whether he has integrity or not. They may forgive a man a great deal: incompetence, ignorance, insecurity or bad manners. But they will never forgive him lack of integrity. Nor will they forgive higher management for choosing him.
II. Find synonyms of the following words:objective, to motivate, common, performance, capable, get along, spirit, mediocre, appeal, integrity.
III. Complete the sentences:
1) The spirit of organization determines …. .
2) An organization helps …. .
3) “Good human relations” make people …. .
4) To create the right spirit throughout management organization it is necessary …. .
5) A man should be appointed to a managerial position if …. .
6) People will never forgive …. .
IV. Write some words about the spirit in your group using the following words and word combinations:
-get along together, human relations, to develop, to depend on, harmony, a managerial position, people’s weaknesses/ strengths, etc.
1)What is the spirit of an organization?
2) It is the purpose of an organization to “make common man do uncommon things” – this phrasing is Lord Beveridge’s. Do you agree with it? When (in what conditions) will an ordinary man do extraordinary things?
3) How can you test working relations in a company?
4) What is the main criterion of a good spirit in an office?
5) Enumerate the five areas in which practices are required to ensure the right spirit throughout management organization.
6) Explain what the “Charter” is. Should every company have a charter? What about our university?
7) No one is less realistic than the cynic. How do you understand this statement?
8) What things in a person can\can’t you forgive?
Express your opinion what points should be included in the Charter of your group\your faculty\your circle of friends, etc. Compose a list of rules how to behave (at least 15 items).
Analyze management style of the university.Study the University Charter and present it to the group.
Unit IX. BUSINESS ETHICS
Lesson 1. Business cards
I. Have you ever given anybody your business card? How was it?
II. Have you ever got business cards? How did you receive it?
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