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Обратите внимание на перевод

there being ( there is ) и

it being (it is):


There being little time at our disposal, we had to take a taxi. Так как в нашем распоряжении было мало времени, нам пришлось взять такси.  
It beeing very dark, I could see nothing. Так как было совсем темно, я ничего не мог увидеть.


Причастные обороты являются принадлежностью письменной речи. В устной речи они обычно заменяются придаточными предложениями.




I. Define the forms of the following participles. Consult the table “Forms of Participles”:

a) using, being used, having used, having been used; developing, having developed, being developed, having been developed; building, being built, having built, having been built; making, having made, being made, having been made;

b) conducting, having done, being employed, having been chosen, doing, having been employed, having chosen, being conducted, employing, having conducted, being done, having employed.


II. Read participles: a) having passive meaning; b) expressing priority of action:


introducing, having developed, deciding, being moved, isolated, being equipped, having obtained, measuring, having been destroyed, having determined, regarded.


III. Translate the following:

a) the matter obtained, the substance applied, the test conducted, the example given, the results published, the tools used;

b) the scientist studying, the student determining, the event occurring, the teacher explaining, the laboratory developing, the book including;

с) the workers doing, the work done; the man identifying, the property identified; the delegation representing, the country represented; the program including, the data included; the chemist applying, the law applied.


IV. Match the two halves.


1. Our laboratory is now developing a new semiconduc­tor device.   1. Лаборатория, разрабатываю­щая новое полупроводнико­вое устройство, должна ре­шить многие проблемы.  
2. Developing a new semicon­ductor device our labora­tory had to solve many problems.   2. Разрабатывая новое полу­проводниковое устройство, наша лаборатория должна была решить многие пробле­мы.  
3. The laboratory developing a new semiconductor device has to solve many problems. 3. Наша лаборатория сейчас разрабатывает новое полу­проводниковое устройство.


V. Give as many versions of the translation as possible.


developing a new design they…

testing the equipment they…

delivering the lecture the professor…

having come to the University the student…

having obtained the substance the engineer…

having lifted the weight he…

VI. Define the forms and functions of the participles. Translate the sentences.


A. 1. The girl is finishing her work. 2. The work is being fi­nished by the girl. 3. The girl finishing her work is my group-mate. 4. Finishing her work, the girl spoke to her friend. 5. Having finished her work, the girl went for a walk. 6. Having been finished in time, the work was given to the tea­cher. 7. The student was translating an article on electricity. 8. The student has translated an article. 9. The article was translated by the student. 10. The article is being trans­lated by the student. 11. The article translated by the stu­dent is difficult. 12. The translated article is devoted to electrical devices. 13. Having been asked to translate the article, the student translated it with great interest.

B. 1.Speaking of the electrically operated devices, one can men­tion the refrigerator. 2. Having mentioned the name of Volta, the teacher spoke about his invention. 3. The first source of continuous current constructed by Volta appeared in 1800. 4. Studying the various phenomena of nature Newton discovered the law of gravitation. 5. A thermometer is a device measuring temperature. 6. Being widely used in industry electrical motors are used in every home. 7. Going along the streets, one can see running trams, trolley-buses, buses and cars.


VII. Choose the correct form.

1. At our University there are several subjects (studied, studying) optionally.

2. Students (taking, taken) exams next week should come to the dean’s office.

3. The engineer (represented, representing) this factory is a good specialist.

4. Scientists (applied, applying) new methods will obtain interesting results.

5. (Having graduated, graduating) from the Institute, he began to work at an office.

6. The problems (discussing, discussed) at the conference are of great importance for future research.

7. Students (studying, studied) foreign languages should read special literature in the original.

8. Specialists (training, trained) at our University work in various fields of the national economy.

9. (Having written, writing) the letter, she posted it.

10. (Building, having built) a new house they used all modern methods of construction.


VIII. Paraphrase the following sentences.


A. Model: The girl who is speaking to you is my friend.

The girl speaking to you is my friend.


1. Water is a substance which consists of hydrogen and oxygen. 2. The law which defines the properties of inertia was formulated by I. Newton. 3. The professor who is delivering this lecture works at our University. 4. All objects which surround us in nature are composed of different substances. 5. Sugar is a hard brittle substance which has color and taste.


B. Model: The equipment which was installed at the plant is quite new.

The equipment installed at the plant is quite new.


1. The experiment which was made in the laboratory is very important. 2. The students who were examined last week got good marks. 3. All elements consist of tiny particles which are called atoms. 4. Specialists who are trained at higher schools work in various fields of the national economy. 5. The equipment which was tested required some improvement.


IX. Translate the following phrases. Mind the position of Participle II:


the materials tested possessed…

the work performed showed…

the results obtained showed…

the equipment tested required…

the problem solved proved…

the equation obtained resulted in…

the experiment discussed proved ….


X. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to Participle II.


1. The temperature of the liquid obtained remained constant. 2. The method applied improved the quality of production. 3. The tools used showed good results. 4. The machine tool developed required some improvement. 5. The device tested showed the desired results. 6. The techniques applied increased the rate of production. 7. The progress achieved resulted in a remarkable technical improvement. 8. The theory formulated is of great importance for our research. 9. The results discussed supported the significance of the experiment. 10. The equipment tested required some improvement.


XI. Translate the Russian words and word combinations given in brackets. Use Participle I or II.

1. The research work (производимая) at the laboratory is of great importance.

2. The engineer (который проводит) this research is a talented physicist.

3. The students (посещающие) these lectures are from various faculties.

4. The lecture (которую посетили) by these students was on mathematics.

5. The substance (называемое) ‘water’ consists of two gases: hydrogen and oxygen.

6. The students (обсуждающие) this problem will take part in the scientific conference.

7. The problems (обсуждаемые) at the conference are very complicated.

XII. Read and translate the sentences with participles as adverbial modifiers.


Model: When heated, the molecules move more intensely.

Когда молекулы нагреваются, они движутся более интенсивно.


1. While being a student Newton was greatly interested in the discoveries which had been made before.

2. Though conducted with care the test didn’t give the expected results.

3. While solving a problem one must take into consideration all the methods related to the problem in question.

4. One should be very attentive when comparing the results of two experiments conducted by different methods.

5. If properly conducted the experiment must bring the desired results.

6. When passed through a motor, electric current can do work.

7. Unless repaired, this part can’t be used in the radio set.

8. If cooled, the water becomes ice.

9. Unless treated properly, this material won’t be a good insulator.

10. When heated, solids expand little as compared with liquids.


XIII. Analyze the sentences with the Objective Participle Construction. Translate.


1. I heard him speaking at the conference. 2. They observed us making experiments. 3. I found him writing a report. 4. We saw the device tested. 5. We watched the car being examined. 6. We want our translations corrected. 7. She got her photo taken. 8. He had the engine of his car examined.


XIV. Compare the couples of sentences with and without the Absolute Participle Construction.

1. a) Having brought the dictionaries from the library, the students began to translate the article.

b) The dictionaries having been brought from the library, the students began to translate the article.

2. a) Having finished my translation, I gave it to the teacher.

b) The translation having been finished, I gave it to the teacher.

3. a) Having finished the experiment, the students left the laboratory.

b) The experiment having been finished, the students left the laboratory.

4. a) The professor delivering the lecture is a famous scientist.

b) The professor delivering the lecture, the students listened to him with great interest.


XV. Translate the sentences with the Absolute Participle Construction.

1. My friend was reading an English article, his brother watching television.

2. Electrical devices find a wide application in every house, a refrigerator being one of them.

3. The energy sources of the world decreasing, the scientists have to look for new sources of energy.

4. There are different sources of energy, the sun being an unlimited source of all forms of energy.

5. Industrial applications of energy increasing, more and more energy is needed every year.

6. Molecules are constantly in rapid motion, the motion becoming more rapid with an increase of temperature.

7. The atoms of different substances have different weights, their properties being also different.

8. The atomic energy being developed in a reactor in the form of heat, we can get both heat and power.

9. Power is the basis of civilization, all industry and transport being dependent upon power.

10. An electric conductor being moved in a magnetic field, an electric current is generated.

11. There are many different types of transformers, the principles of action being the same in each case.

12. The proposal being unconstitutional, the committee rejected it.

13. England being a constitutional monarchy, the Queen of England is only a formal ruler.

14. The final round of the negotiations over, a joint communiqué was signed.

15. London is not only the center of commerce and finance but also a great port, with many of the imported and exported goods passing through it.

16. It being Sunday, the shops were closed.

17. There being a lot of things to discuss, the conference lasted long.


XVI. Combine two sentences into one using the Absolute Participle Construction.

Model: The article was written; they sent it to the journal.

The article being written, they sent it to the journal.

Когда статья была написана, они отправили ее в журнал.


1. The train has left; we went home.

2. The book was read; we decided to discuss it.

3. The first part of the work was completed; the results were published.

4. The journal contained a number of interesting articles; one of them was devoted to cybernetics.

5. Many specialists work on the problem of corrosion; special attention is paid to the problems of protection of steel surfaces from corrosion.

6. The articles on plasma chemistry were published; the students got interested in them.

7. Electrons move through a wire; electrical energy is generated.

8. The temperature of a wire is raised; the motion of the electrons increases.


XVII. Complete the sentences using the Absolute Participle Construction.

1. There are a few ways of generating electric current, (причем все они основаны на одном и том же принципе).

2. The atoms and electrons are usually in a state of rapid motion, (причем скорость их движения является функцией температуры).

3. The name ‘electronics’ is derived from the word ‘electron’, (причем слово ‘электрон’ означает ‘янтарь’).

4. (Когда свободные электроны движутся в одном направлении), a direct current results.

5. (Когда число свободных электронов в веществе возрастает), the conductivity of that substance increases.

6. The article deals with optical electronics, (причем особое внимание уделяется лазерам).

7. (После того, как монитор починили), we could use it in our work.

8. The lecturer spoke on the problems of space research, (причем его лекция была проиллюстрирована диаграммами).


XVIII. Revise the grammar material on participles and participle constructions. Translate the sentences.

A. 1. There’s always something sad about two ships passing each other during the night. 2. The English spoken by most educated people in Britain is known as the Queen’s English or Standard English. It is the English taught in universities and schools and the kind heard on the BBC. 3. Money saved is money gained. 4. A trouble shared is a trouble halved. 5. The project being realized was proposed by a team of scientists. 6. Entering or leaving a room with ladies, don’t rush before them. Remember the golden rule of every gentleman: “Ladies first”. 7. When asked if he realized the danger, he said he did. 8. You’ll see more of the country-side traveling by coach. 9. Being a poor speller, he didn’t like writing letters. 10. Having read the note, he folded it and put it away. 11. Arriving at the station, he consulted the time-table again. 12. When crossing the street in London, look first to the right, then to the left. 13. While playing tennis, be sure you hold the racket in the right way. 14. Based on a real life event, the story aroused everybody’s interest. 15. Looked at from a different angle, the problem didn’t seem very difficult.

B. 1. Explained again, the rule became quite clear to everybody. 2. The rule explained, we started doing the exercises. 3. The rule being explained is not easy. 4. The rule explained is difficult. 5. We would like it explained again. 6. If explained, the rule will not seem difficult.

C. 1. The man saved was a Norwegian sailor. 2. The man saved a Norwegian sailor. 3. All the children having been saved, everybody felt relieved. 4. Having saved the boy’s life, the doctor felt relieved. 5. I want him saved. 6. The passengers are being saved.


XIX. Write in English. Use participles where possible.

1. Готовясь к ответу, он просмотрел свои записи.

2. Мы сидели в аудитории, ожидая преподавателя.

3. Пример, приведенный Вами, не совсем правилен.

4. Электрический двигатель, преобразующий электрическую энергию в механическую, широко используется в повседневной жизни.

5. Говоря об электрическом токе, мы можем упомянуть имя Вольты.

6. Понижая температуру, мы замедляем химическую реакцию.

7. Электрические приборы, упомянутые в этой статье, были созданы русскими учеными.

8. Измерив температуру воды, мы приступили к эксперименту.

9. Проводя опыт, мы повысили температуру; повысив температуру, мы ускорили химическую реакцию.

10. Эксперименты, проводимые в нашей лаборатории, опасны.

11. Изучив свойства некоторых материалов, инженер выбрал те, которые требовались для его проекта.

12. Элементами, образующими сахар, являются кислород, водород и углерод.




  1. V. Переводные испытания в нерусских школах.
  2. V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различное значение выделенных слов.
  3. БИЛЕТ 1. Перевод как разновидность межъязыковой и межкультурной коммуникации. Общественное предназначение перевода.
  4. БИЛЕТ 25. Переводческие трансформации. Добавления. Опущения. Причины и мера переводческих трансформаций.
  5. БИЛЕТ 28. Прагматические отношения в переводе.
  7. БИЛЕТ 6. Перевод в эпоху Средневековья. Перевод в Европе в XIV-XIX вв.
  8. В XIX веке огромное внимание уделялось изучению фольклора: русские композиторы собирали народные песни и стремились как можно чаще использовать их в своих произведениях.
  9. В каждой из позиций нащупайте точки, о которых здесь написано. А потом подпитайте Ваши точки по 1-2-3 минуты, держа внимание над головой.
  11. Внимание и его физиологические основы
  12. Внимание как познавательный процесс

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