Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии


At an International Language School



Kunio: Good morning. My name’s Kunio.

Maria: My name’s Maria. I’m glad to meet you.

Kunio: So am I. Where do you come from?

Maria: I come from Mexico. Where are you from?

Kunio: I’m from Japan.

Maria: Where are you living now?

Kunio: On fifth Avenue. And you?

Maria: I’m living in a dorm.

Kunio: What is your field of study?

Maria: Business. After I study English I’m going to attend the school of Business Administration. How about you? What’s your major?

Kunio: Chemistry.

Maria: What do you like to do in your free time? Do you have any hobbies?

Kunio: I like to swim. How about you?

Maria: I read a lot and I collect stamps from all over the world.

Kunio: Really? Would you like some stamps from Japan?

Maria: Sure. That would be great. Thanks.

Kunio: I have to write your full name on the board when I introduce you to the class. How do you spell your name?

Maria: My first name is Maria. M-A-R-I-A. My last name is Lopez. L-O-P-E-Z. How do you spell you name?

Kunio: My first name is Kunio. K-U-N-I-O. My family name is Akiwa. A-K-I-W-A.

Maria: Kunio Akiwa. Is that right?

Kunio: It is.

 

2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

Where are Kunio and Maria from? What are they doing in the USA? What is their field of study? What are their hobbies?

 

Текст № 5

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A Very Energetic Woman

Maria is always busy with her job. She gets to the office before 8.30. She takes off her coat, puts on her reading glasses and sits down at her desk. Then she reads her mail and fills out the daily reports. If she has enough time, she has a cup of coffee.

At 9.00 the other workers arrive. Some of them are too tired to smile. Sometimes Maria is too busy to talk, but she says hello to everyone.

At 9.30 she goes into the boss’s office. She gives him the daily reports. They always talk about them for a few minutes. She tells the boss her plans for the day. Then she goes back to her office and makes phone calls. The company does business in England and Japan, so sometimes she has to call these countries.

At the end of the day she picks up the children at school. They are always happy to see her, and she is always energetic enough to play with them at home. Maria is important to the people at the office and to the people at home, and she does a good job at both places.

 

2 . Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

When does Maria get to the office? What does she do first? Does she have a cup of coffee? When do the other workers arrive? Does Maria say hello to everyone? What time does Maria go into the boss’s office? What does she give to her boss? Where does the company do business? Does she play with her children at home?

 

Тексты для перевода со словарем

 

Текст №1

University Education in Great Britain

There are 46 universities in Britain. But not all the universities are equal. They differ from one another in history, tradition, and academic organization. Not all British universities are backed by a well-known reputation.

Oxford and Cambridge, the oldest universities, are world-known for their academic excellence. The University of London has size and breath to rank among the UK’s top universities.

A university usually consists of colleges. The departments of the colleges are organized into faculties.

University teaching in the UK differs greatly at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels from that in many other countries.

An undergraduate program consists of a series of lectures, seminars, tutorials and laboratory classes, which in total account last for about 15 hours per week.

Following a particular program a student takes a series of lecture courses, which may last one academic term or the whole year. Associate with each lecture course are seminars, tutorials, laboratory classes that illustrate the topics presented in the lectures.

Lectures are given to large groups of students (from 20 to 200). Seminars and tutorials are much smaller than lecture classes and in some departments can be on a one-to-one basis (one member of the staff and one student).

Lectures, seminars and tutorials are all one hour in length, laboratory classes last two or three hours. Each student has a tutor whom he can consult on matter whether academic or personal.

The academic year is split into three terms. Formal teaching takes place in the first two terms, which last for twenty-four weeks in total. The third term is reserved for classes and examinations and lasts for six weeks.

After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. He can continue to take his Master’s Degree and then the Doctor’s Degree.

 

Текст №2

OXBRIDGE

Two universities, Oxford and Cambridge, Oxbridge, as they are sometimes jointly called, for seven hundred years dominated British education, and today they dominate more than ever. The students of Oxbridge make up one of the most elite elites in the world. Many great men studied here. Among them Bacon, the philosopher, Milton, the poet, Cromwell, the soldier, and Newton, the scientist. Many prominent Conservative and Labour leaders and ministers, members of the Royal family studied there too.

Today Oxford and Cambridge have less than one-tenth of all British university students (less than 1% of Britain’s population). Only a small per cent of the candidates are chosen- mainly on the results of the written examinations.

The division between Oxford and Redbrick is sharp. The division is essentially a class one. A large per cent of Oxford undergraduates come from public schools. Only since the 1870s women have been admitted and the women’s colleges constitute only 12% of the Oxbridge population.

Oxford and Cambridge preserve an antique way of life in the midst of the twentieth century. Oxbridge is only in session half the year. Both Oxford and Cambridge now consist of self-governing colleges where students live. The students have lectures and tutorials. Each student has a tutor who tells him to write papers on the subjects he is studying. Tutors are responsible for the students’ progress.

 

Текст №3

The Open University

A university that calls itself 'The Open University' suggests (предполагает) that all other universities are closed. And this is true, because they are closed to everyone who does not have the time, the opportunity (возможности) or the qualifications to study there. For these people, who missed (упустить) the chance of going to a conventional university, 'The Open University' was set up in 1967.

Most of its students work at home or in full-time jobs and can study only in their free time. They need to study about ten hours a week. As the university is truly " open", there are no formal entry requirements (вступительных экзаменов) (none of the usual " A" Level examinations are asked for), and students are accepted (приниматься) on a " first come, first served" basis. This is one of the more revolutionary aspects of the university.

Its students are therefore of all ages and come from very different backgrounds (происхождение). Some, such as teachers, want to improve (улучшить) their qualifications. Others, like retired people (пенсионеры) or mothers whose families have grown up, are at the O. U. because they now have the time to do something they have always wanted to do.

Returning to " school" is difficult for most students, for they have forgotten — or never knew — how to study, to write essays, and to prepare for exams. In addition to all the reading and writing assignments (задание), students have got a lot of watching and listening to do, for there are weekly O. U. lectures broadcast on BBC television and radio.

To keep people from just giving up or collapsing under all this work, each student gets the help and support of his own tutor/counselor, who he meets regularly and can telephone in any crisis or difficulty. At the meetings, students get to know other students on the course and join (объединяться) with them into " self-help" groups. These groups meet in each others homes to discuss the texts and assignments; here too they find support and stimulation.

By the time the exams come in October, you feel much more confident (уверенный) and optimistic about your return to student life. Your final mark is based on the exam and the written assignments done during the year.

 

Текст № 4

US Education

Americans place a high value on education. Universal access to quality education has been one of the nation’s historic goals.

America’s first college, Harvard was founded in 1636. In 1865 education was becoming available to all. The peculiar feature of American education is the absence of national administration.

After graduating from secondary school a growing number of Americans go to higher education. American institutes of higher education include: technical training schools, community colleges; colleges offering four-year bachelor degree programs; and universities which contain one or more colleges and graduate school offering masters or doctoral degree programs. The factors determining an institution’s prestige are the quality of the teaching factory; quality of research facilities; the number and competence of applicants for admission.

After the first two years every university student majors in one subject and minors in another. In addition to these major and minor courses he can select other subjects according to his professional interest.

After completing four years of study the students receive a Bachelor Degree (either B.A. or B.S.) with an additional year of study he may receive a Master’s Degree and after two or three years of graduate work and writing of the dissertation he receives a Doctorate Degree.

 

Текст № 5

Higher Education in the USA

In the United States, a student who has finished high school, may want to continue in higher education. There are several ways to do it: universities, colleges, community (местные) colleges, and technical or vocational schools (профессиональные училища).

A university in the United States usually has several different colleges in it. Each has a special subject area (специализироваться в определенной области). There may be a college of liberal arts where humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and mathematics are taught. There may be a college of education and a college of business. A program for undergraduates usually takes four years. University students get an undergraduate degree in the arts or sciences. If they complete a course of study they get Bachelor of Arts or Science degree. Students may leave the university at this time. They may also go on for a graduate (магистра или доктора) or professional degree. The university always has programs for graduate (аспирантов) and professional study in many subjects.

The university may get money from several different sources (источники). A publicly funded university gets some money from the state government. A privately funded university gets money only from private sources. Or the university may be funded by a religious group.

College students usually spend four years at school, too. A college does not have graduate or professional programs. If a college student completes a course of study in arts or science, he or she gets Bachelor of Arts or Science degree. If college students want to continue for a graduate or professional degree, they must go to University. The college is usually funded in one of the three ways already described.

The program of study in the community college usually lasts two years. Not all of the subjects taught there are the usual school subjects.

The community college may give courses in the regular academic subjects (предмет) or subjects like dental technology, sewing and other non-academic subjects.Not all students of the community college have a high school (средняя школа) diploma. They may then go to a college for two more years to get the bachelor's degree. community colleges are nearly always publicly funded.

The technical or vocational school has only job training(профессиональная подготовка), it has no academicprogram. Students may have a high school diploma, or not. Programs may take from six months to two years and more. The technical or vocational school gives training for work in areassuch as electronics, carpentry and others.

Текст № 6

American English

Britain and America were described as nations divided by a common language. Just what is the difference between the English spoken in Britain and America?

The first English settlers to reach America arrived in Virginia in 1607 and in Massachusetts in 1620. They all spoke English of the early seventeenth century – the language of Shakespeare and Milton. Most of them came originally from the southwest of England. Although some of them had spent some years of exile in Holland they spoke with the accents of the southern part of their home country. To a large extent they kept that form of speech, but they soon learned to give old words new uses. They also took words from the local Indian languages for plants and animals that were new to them.

Until the Declaration of Independence in 1777 over two-thirds of the settlers in what later became the U.S. came from England. After that date many other people came to make a new life for themselves in the New World. These included Irish, French, Germans, Dutch, Italians, Slavs and Scandinavians. All these people gave new words to the language of North America. The Negroes who had been taken from Africa as slaves to work on the rice and cotton plantations added words and structures from their own native languages. Some people today think that the very American expression O.K. comes from a similar expression, which was brought to America by the Negroes. Although all these people contributed in various ways to the language which was to become American English, there is one man who can be singled out as the person who did the most to give American English an identity of its own. He was Noah Webster (1758-1843). He is largely responsible for the differences, which exist between British and American spelling.

Текст № 7

What is Economics?

Economics is a social science studying production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments try to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. Other fields of study also try to do that. Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed; history records changes in human objectives; sociology interprets human behaviour in social contexts.

Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. The first, microeconomics, explains how supply and demand in competitive mar­kets create prices, wage rates, profit margins, and rental changes. Microeconomics assumes that people behave rationally. Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possi­ble. As economists say, they maximize utility. For their part, entrepre­neurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.

The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression is based on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and govern­ments.

Текст № 8

What is “Management”?

There are a variety of views about this term. Traditionally, the term " management" refers to the set of activities, and often to the group of people, involved in four general functions, including planning, organiz­ing, leading and coordinating activities. All these four functions are highly integrated and interrelated.

Some writers, teachers and practitioners say that the above view is rather out-of-date and that management needs to focus more on leadership skills, e.g., establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them. They also say that leadership must be more facilitating, participative and empowering in how visions and goals are established and carried out. Some people say that this really isn't a change in the management functions but a new look at certain aspects of management.

Another common view is that " management" is getting things done through others. Yet another view, quite apart from the traditional view, asserts that the job of management is to support employee's ef­forts to be fully productive members of the organizations.

To most employees, the term " management" probably means the group of people (executives and other managers) who are primarily re­sponsible for making decisions in the organization. In nonprofit organi­zations, the term " management" might refer to all or any of the activities of the board, executive director and/or program directors.

 

Проработав грамматический и текстовой материал, Вы можете приступить к выполнению тренировочного теста. Предварительно проверьте себя, ответив на вопросы устно.

1. Как образуется множественное число существительных в английском языке?

2. Каковы особенности правописания существительных во множественном числе, заканчивающихся на – y, на шипящие?

3. Какие существительные образуют множественное число не по общему правилу, являясь исключениями?

4. Какие существительные не изменяются при образовании множественного числа?

5. Какие существительные имеют только единственное или только множественное число?

6. Как образуются сравнительная и превосходная степени прилагательных в английском языке?

7. Какие прилагательные образуют степени сравнения не по правилу, являясь исключениями?

8. Какие союзы сравнения Вы знаете?

9. Как образуются порядковые числительные от 13 до 19, и числительные, обозначающие десятки (20, 30, 40 и т.д.); как сказать по-английски сотня, тысяча, миллион?

10. Как образуются порядковые числительные?

11. Помните ли Вы личные, притяжательные, указательные и вопросительные местоимения? Назовите их и переведите.

12. Каковы особенности спряжения глаголов в простом настоящем времени Simple Present? Проспрягайте любой глагол.

13. Проспрягайте глаголы to be и to have в простом настоящем времени (времени Simple Present).

14. Что такое общий и специальный вопросы? Какова их структура?

15. Какие вспомогательные глаголы используются при образовании вопросительных предложений в простом настоящем времени? С какими местоимениями они используются?

16. Что такое альтернативный и разделительный вопросы, какова их структура?

17. Как переводится оборот there is / there are; с чего лучше начинать перевод этого оборота? Какие местоимения используются в вопросительных и отрицательных формах этого оборота

18. Как образуются формы повелительного наклонения в английском языке? Какая конструкция обозначает просьбу и одновременно побуждение к совместному действию?

19. Какие суффиксы прилагательных и наречий Вы знаете?

Проверочный тест (для самоконтроля)

(ключи приведены в конце теста)

I. Напишите следующие предложения во множественном числе

1. This is a long letter.

2. That is a green pencil.

3. What colour is this sofa?

4. What is your friend’s name?

5. I am a student from Russia.

6. Where is the child now?

7. Here is the businessman’s offer.

 

II. Замените выделенные слова личными местоимениями в объектном падеже.

1. Translate this letter into Russian.

2. Answer these questions, please.

3. Give the customer the offer, please.

4. He doesn’t know the manager and his assistant.

5. Ask the secretary to send the offer to the firm.

6. Show my colleague and me the new model.

 

III. Выберите подходящие местоимения в зависимости от смысла.

1. At the lessons (they, them, their) teacher asks (they, them, their) a lot of questions and the students answer (they, them, their).

2. (We, us, our) have a children’s room. (It, its) windows are large and (it, its) is very light. (We, us, our) children like (they, them, their) room.

3. Petrov is (we, us, our) student. (I, me, my) know (he, him, his) well. (He, him, his) English is good and (I, me, my) speak only English to (he, him, his). (He, him, his) helps (we, our, us) a lot.

 

IV. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму.

1. These engineers work at the Ministry of Foreign Trade.

2. He has got a good job.

3. He has breakfast early in the morning.

4. Jane goes to the Institute every day.

5. There are cables and telexes on the desk.

 

V. Укажите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова, подчеркните встречающиеся в них суффиксы и дайте исходные формы этих слов.

Cultural, industrial, financial, famous, beautiful, fashionable, different, priceless, government, collection, painting, building.

 

VI. На основании следующих вопросов составьте рассказ о себе.

1. What is your name?

2. How old are you?

3. Are you married or single?

4. Do you live with your parents?

5. Have you got children?

6. What’s your job?

7. How long does it take you to get to your work?

8. When do you begin your work?

9. Who is head of your office?

10. What do you do during your working hours?

11. Does your office receive a lot of letters, cables and telexes?

12. Who send answers to these letters and cables?

13. Do you receive foreign businessmen at your office?

 

Ключи к тесту

I. 1. These are long letters.

1. Those are green pencils

2. What colour are these sofas?

3. What are your friends’ names?

4. We are students from Russia.

5. What are those women’s jobs?

6. Where are the children now?

7. Here are the businessman’s offers.

 

II. 1. It 2. Them 3. Him 4. Them 5. Her 6. Us

 

III. 1. Their, them, them

2. We; its, it; our, their.

3. Our; I, him; his, I, him, he, us

 

IV. 1. Do these engineers work at the Ministry of Foreign Trade? These engineers don’t work at the Ministry of Foreign Trade.

2. Has he got a good job? He hasn’t got a good job.

3. Does he have breakfast early in the morning? He doesn’t have breakfast early in the morning.

4. Does Jane go to the Institute every day? Jane doesn’t go to the Institute every day.

5. Are there cables and telexes on the desk? There aren’t cables and telexes on the desk.

 

V. Первые восемь слов – прилагательные, следующие четыре слова – существительные


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