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Topic vocabulary in contrast

A   Each of the words in bold is in the wrong sentence. Write the correct word on the line.

1. All twelve members of the witness were convinced of Davidson's guilt.jury

2. I don't think I'd ever break a serious crime

3. If the school laws aren't written down anywhere, how are we supposed to know what they are?       

4. A psychiatrist was called as an expert judge during the trial

5. If a parent smacks a child, that's an example of commit punishment

6. Everyone should have the jury to a fair trial

7. If you sentenced the law, you deserve to be punished!

8. Governments must be allowed to introduce, change and scrap bystanders.

9. Can you imagine what it's like being justice for years in a cell?

10. It's very important that capital is seen to be done

11. Another phrase for 'right punishment' is 'the death sentence'.

12. The spy was imprisoned to life imprisonment

13. A number of rules watched the robbers speed off in a getaway car.

14. 'Silence in court!' shouted the corporal angrily.


В Complete the crossword.


2. A football... is someone who causes trouble at a football match. (8)

4. the decision of a judge or jury (7)

8. a burglar, robber or any other person who steals (5)

10. It might not be absolute proof of someone's guilt, but it is used to show that someone could be guilty. (8)

11. a person the police think might have committed a crime (7)

12. The jury found her not... of all charges. (6)

13. take someone to court (9)


1. A solicitor is a specific type of.... (6)

3. put someone in handcuffs and take them to the police station, for example (6)

4. a person who puts graffiti on walls, smashes windows,etc (6)

5. not guilty (8)

6. If the police feel sure a person is guilty, they... that person with the crime. (6)

7. frequently attack or annoy; treat someone badly and deny them their rights (9)

9. the person in court who is on trial (also known as the defendant) (7)


4 5 6
7 8
11 12



1 L
2 H O O L I G A N
3 A W
4 V E R D 5 I C T 6 C Y
A R N 7 P 8 T H I E F
9 A D S O R R
C L 10 E V I D E N C E
11 S U S P E C T 12 G U I L T Y
D 13 P R O S E C U T E


Phrasal verbs

С Complete using the correct form of the phrasal verbs in the box.

break out • bring in • chase after • come forward • go off •hold up • look into • make off

1. So many witnesses have _________ that it will take days to interview them all.

2. The two robbers _________ on a motorbike.

3. Police are _________ allegations of corruption in the mayor's office.

4. The government is thinking of _________ a law to allow on-the-spot fines for hooligans.

5. A robber has _________ three banks in town in the last week.

6. They spent two years planning their escape before they finally _________of prison.

7. The policewoman _________ the pickpocket brought him to the ground and finally arrested him.

8. Luckily, the bomb disposal squad defused the bomb before it _________.


D   Write one word in each gap.


The most incredible thing happened to me yesterday. I was walking home from school when I saw a wallet on the ground full of money. I picked it up, and was just about to take it to the policestation to (1) _________ it in, when a police officer jumped out and told me I was under arrest forstealing. I tried to explain the situation but he wouldn't (2) _________ down.'l won't let you get(3) _________ with this/he said.'You're a thief, and thieves have to be punished.'He handcuffedme and drove me to the police station, where he took (4) _________ my name and address. Istarted crying, and begged him to (5) _________ me off, again trying to explain that I wasn'tgoing to keep the money. Suddenly, my best friend Adrian and a TV presenter came in and the police officer started laughing. It was a practical joke for a TV show, and I'd been completely (6) _________ in!


Phrases and collocations

E   Circle the correct word.

1. I don't know why you're putting / taking the blame on me.

2. Shelley has no intention / purpose of admitting she lied.

3. It doesn't / isn't necessary to set the burglar alarm.

4. The judge made / gave us permission to call a suprise witness.

5. We don't know who was at fault / damage yet, but we'll find out.

6. Sorry, I mistook you for / with someone else.

7. Should judges take children into reason / account when sentencing their parents?

8. The plan went / had wrong, didn't it?

9. We need prisons in solution / order to keep society safe from dangerous criminals.

10. Many people are making / taking advantage of the change in the tax law. 


Word patterns

F   Match to make sentences.

1. They accused me                                         A for shoplifting.

2. Our next-door neighbour was arrested            В she's guilty.

3. Three people have been charged               С someone to steal something from a shop.

4. She denied                                                  D of someone shoplifting.

5. I doubt whether                                      E stealing the clothes.

6. I caught a glimpse                                       F to steal something from the shop.

7. My friends made me                                    G steal something from the shop.

8. She says she was made                           H with theft.

9. It is illegal for                                              I of shoplifting.


G Write one word in each gap.

Newton Archer                                                                                               The Voice of Sanity


Owen Davis used to be my hero. One of the greatest athletes of his generation, Owen made us think that everything was possible. I had so much respect (l) for  him, particularly in terms of his 'no drugs in sport' campaign. And now there's no doubt that all the time Davis was claiming (2) _________ drugs were damaging sport, he himself was taking them. Last week, the International Athletics Association found Davis guilty (3) _________ taking banned body-enhancing substances. Davis has been banned from taking part in national and international events for the next five years, and the IAA are threatening (4) _________ ban future drug-takers for life. I hope they do. I refuse (5) _________ accept that we should show sympathy towards Davis at a time like this. We should never forgive people like Owen Davis (6) _________ bringing sport into disrepute.


Word formation

H  Each of the words in bold is in the wrong form. Write the correct form on the line.

1. I'm not sure that sending young offence to prison is such a good idea. offenders

2. There's absolutely no solid prove that he was anywhere near the scene of the crime. _________

3. I'm not saying another word until I've spoken to my law. _________

4. You shouldn't make accuse like that without evidence. _________

5. When she left the police force, she worked as a private investigate for a while . _________

6. 'I hope that your prison has shown you the error of your ways,' said the prison governor. _________

7. He was initially sent to a maximumsecure prison. _________

8. Lying and stealing are both forms of honest. _________

9. Police are looking carefully at the forensic evident. _________

10. There's no doubt this painting is a forge. _________

11. Drug addict is no excuse - no one should hold up a petrol station! _________

12. The rob took place at half past ten in the morning. _________

13. No one is born a theft, and no one has to remain one their whole life. _________

14. The convict of a number of senior executives has left the whole business community in shock. _________

15. The problem with prisons is that they're full of crime who can teach new inmates all their tricks and skills! _________

16. Should a murder be given the death penalty? _________


A Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.


Frank Turner, the (1) _________ in a trial that has attracted national                ACCUSE

attention, was today convicted of murder. The police (2) _________            INVESTIGATE

lasted for a year and during the trial over 100 hours of (3) _________             EVIDENT

were heard. Turner's (4) _________ had all argued that he was not in the        LAW

area at the time, but could not provide the necessary (5) _________.               PROVE

Police described Turner as a well-known (6) _________ who was                    THEFT

responsible for many (7) _________ in the local region. This is not                   ROB

Turner's first (8) _________ Seven years ago, he was found guilty of              CONVICT

(9) _________ and served three years in prison. The judge is expected            FORGE

to sentence Turner to a period of (10) _________ later this week.                    PRISON

(1 mark per answer)

В Match to make sentences.

11. I heard that they're going to bring 12. Police are appealing for members of the public to come 13. Nobody was convinced when the man claimed the gun had gone 14. The policewoman started to take 15. Lots of old people have been taken 16. Peterson was found guilty of holding 17. Many people get 18. The policeman decided to let Shaun A off accidentally in his hand. В away with serious crimes every day. С in by this trick and have lost a lot of money. D forward with any information they feel might be useful. E up the bank and was sentenced to five years in prison. F off this time, but told him that he wouldn't be so lucky next time. G in a law banning smoking in public places. H down everything I was saying and I knew I was in serious trouble.

(1 mark per answer)


С Complete the second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

19. Police said there hadn't been a crime as bad as this in over ten years.                     the

Police described it as the worst crime in  over ten years.

20. Some people don't respect the law.                                                                          have

Some people ________________ the law.

21. The laws in some countries are so strict that people have very little freedom.         such

Some countries ________________ people have very little freedom.

22. The girl was too young to go to prison.                                                                    old

The girl ________________.to go to prison.

23. The witness thought I was the thief, but realised that she was wrong.                    for

The witness ________________ but realised that she was wrong.

24. Nobody in the country knows the law as well as Mr Parkhurst.                                          than

Mr Parkhurst knows the law ________________ in the country.

25. There have been so many robberies lately that people are afraid.                             such

There have been ________________robberies lately that peopleare afraid.

26. Even though we weren't old enough, we managed to get into the night club.        too

Even though we ________________ we managed to get into thenight club.

27. The judge told the jury to consider the man's past life.                                            account

The judge told the jury to ________________the man's past life.

(2 marks per answer)


D   Choose the correct answer.

28. I had … a bad time in prison that I never want to go there again.

A too                                 В so

С such                               D quite

29. One problem is that we don't have … officers on the streets.

A so a lot of                      В too many

С enough                           D such many

30. I can't get a car yet because I'm not … to drive.

A enough old                    Вquite old

С so old                             Dold enough

31. Some crimes seem to be … in this country than in others.

A much less common        В the least common

С too little common          D little common enough

32. Police blamed the robberies … a local gang.

A with                               В on

С for                                  D to

33. My grandma says there was …a lot of crime when she was young that nobody trusted anybody else.

A too                                 В so

С such                               D quite

It became … as I walked home and I began to get slightly nervous.

A enough dark                  В such dark

С quite dark                      D so dark enough

(1 mark per answer)


E   Choose the correct answer.

35. The prisoner knew he had … a mistake and would regret it forever.

A got                               С done

В taken                         D made

36. The boy … that he had had anything to do with the break-in.

A refused                          С objected

В denied                       D rejected

37. Suddenly, someone shouted, 'Thief!' and the man quickly … on a motorbike.

A took in                      С came forward

В made off                        D handed in

38. Do you have … to take that bicycle?

A allowance                      С willingness

В exception                       D permission

39. He said it was an accident, but I know he did it on … .

A purpose                          С goal

В aim                               D reason

40. Things started to … wrong for the robbers when the alarm went off.

A take                               С go

В have                               D come

41. The sign says that all shoplifters will be … .

A persecuted                     С prosecuted

В disproved                      D prohibited

(1 mark per answer)

Total mark: … /50



Unit 13                            GRAMMAR

• Modals: ability, permission, advice, criticism, obligation and necessity, degrees of certainty

Form • All modals (will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must) and the semi-modal ought to have only one form. •     Modals are followed by the bare infinitive (simple or continuous) or the bare perfect infinitive eg Toby should be very fit by now. Toby should have recovered by now. •     The semi-modals have to and need to change their form depending on person and tense eg The doctor said I had/needed to give up red meat.

( Modals: ability )

Use Modal Example
Expressing ability now or generally can I can run a kilometre in four minutes.
Expressing decisions made now about future ability can We can meet at the gym tomorrow, if you like.
Expressing ability in the past could I could do fifty press-ups with one hand when I was younger.
Expressing ability in present,future or general hypothetical situations could If only I could quit smoking!
Expressing ability in past hypothetical situations could + perfect infinitive I could have roasted the potatoes, but I decided that boiling them was healthier.


• We use be able to for the infinitive and other tenses.

I’d love to be able to fit into these jeans again! (infinitive)

I'llbe able to leave hospital in a few weeks, apparently. (future)

I'vebeen able to swim since I was five. (present perfect)


( Modals: permission )

Use Modal Example
Asking for and giving permission now, for the future or generally may could can May/Could/ Са n I see the doctor,please?


May is more polite than could, and could is more polite than can.

• We don't usually use a modal to talk about past permission.

✓I was allowed to wear a knee support during the match.

I could wear a knee support during the match.

• However, we do use could to talk about past permission in reported speech.

✓The coach said I could wear a knee support during the match.


( Modals: advice )

Use Modal Example
Asking for and giving advice now, for the future or generally should ought to You ought to /should cut down on the amount of red meat you eat.


( Modals: criticism )

Use Modal Example
Criticising past behaviour should ought to (+ perfect infinitive) He ought to /should have made more of an effort with his diet.


( Modals: obligation and necessity )

Use Modal Example
Expressing obligation or necessity must/have to/need to I must/have to/need to pick up that prescription from the chemist on the way home.
Expressing lack of obligation or necessity needn’t/don’t have to /don’t need to You needn't/don't have to/don't need to pick up that prescription from the chemist as I'll get it while I'm in town.
Expressing past obligation had to I had to take the pills three times a day for two weeks.
Expressing lack of past obligation needn't(+perfect infinitive) / didn't have to / didn't need to I needn't have gone/didn't have to go/didn't need to go to the doctor.


• There is usually no difference in meaning between must and have to. However, we are sometimes more likely to use must for personal obligation (making our own decision about what we must do) and have to for external obligation (someone else making a decision about what we must do).

• We can also use will have/need to to express future obligation.

✓You'll have/need to be more careful about what you eat in future.

• It is unusual to use must for questions. We usually use have/need to.

✓Do I have/need to take this medicine before every meal?

Must cannot be used as an infinitive. Use to have to.

✓I'd hate to have to have injections every day.

Mustn't and don't/doesn't have/need to have different meanings.

✓You mustn't do that! (Don't do that!)

✓You don't have/need to do that. (You can do that if you want to but it's not necessary.)

Needn't (+ perfect infinitive) always refers to an action that happened.

Didn't have to and didn't need to can refer to actions that did or didn't happen.

✓I needn't have gone to the doctor. (I went but it wasn't necessary.)

✓I didn't have/need to go to the doctor because I suddenly felt better. (I didn't go.)

✓I didn't have/need to go to the doctor but I went just to be on the safe side. (I did go.)

• Be careful with the verb need. It can also take the -ing form.

✓I need to sterilise this syringe.

✓This syringe needs sterilising.


( Modals: degrees of certainty )

Use Modal Example
Expressing certainty (or near certainty) about now or generally must can’t couldn’t That must be the district nurse at the door. These can't/couldn't be the pills; they're the wrong colour.
Expressing certainty (or near certainty) about the past must can’t couldn’t (+perfect infinitive) She must have been in a lot of pain. His leg can't/couldn't have been in plaster for two years!
Expressing probability about now, the future or generally should ought to You ought to/should feel better in a few days, as long as you get lots of rest.
Expressing probability about the past should ought to (+perfect infinitive) The bruise ought to /should have disappeared days ago. I wonder why it didn't.
Expressing possibility about now, the future or generally could may might You should talk to your doctor first because that diet could / may /might be dangerous.
Expressing possibility about the real past could may might (+perfect infinitive) That could/may/might have been the doctor who rang earlier while we were out.
Expressing possibility about a hypothetical past could might (+perfect infinitive It's a good thing you went to the doctor or you could/might have become quite ill.


A  If a word or phrase in bold is correct, put a tick (✓). If it is incorrect, rewrite it correctly on the line.

1. Can you to speak French?        speak

2. I can give you a hand tomorrow morning, if you like. ___________

3. I'll can take my driving test after a few more lessons. ___________

4. Jack can play the guitar before he learnt to talk! ___________

5. If only I can afford to buy that top! ___________

6. We can have gone up the Eiffel Tower while we were in Paris, but we decided to go to the Louvre instead       . ___________

7.I could get a more expensive computer, but it didn't seem worth it. ___________

8. I wish I could get out of the maths test tomorrow! ___________

9. I bet you'd love to be can to get satellite TV. ___________

10. You'd better tell the coach if you can't playing on Saturday. ___________


В Circle the correct word or phrase. If both options are correct, circle both.

1. Hello. Could / Can I speak to Mrs Johnson, please?

2. We could / were allowed to go home early yesterday because our teacher was ill.

3. The head teacher said we could / were allowed to go home.

4. Do you think I should / could be worried about these spots on my forehead?

5. You ought to / should enter that talent contest!

6. You couldn't / shouldn't talk to people like that! It's rude!

7. Alan should write / have written two essays in the exam yesterday, not one!

8. No, you may / should not go out tonight. You know you're grounded!

9. Diana shouldhave waited / been waiting for me at the corner. I wonder where she went.

10. What were you doing in the park? You ought to have done / been doing your homework then!

11. Yes, of course you can / are able to open the window if you're too hot!


СWrite a form of must, have to, need or need to in each gap to complete the sentences. If more thanone possibility is correct, write all possibilities.

1. Oh, I must/(will) have/need to emember to get some potatoes on the way home tonight.

2. Jason _______ see the headmaster during the next break. I wonder what it's about.

3. We _______ light lots of candles during the power cut two nights ago.

4. I'll _______ start doing my Christmas cards soon. It's nearly December.

5. Carl, you _______ run into the street like that without looking first. It's dangerous!

6. People with solar-powered cars _______ worry about the price of petrol.

7. I wouldn't like to _______ get up at five o'clock every morning.

8. We _______ do any washing-up after the picnic because we'd used disposable plates and cutlery.

9. Do professional musicians _______ practise every day?

10. I _______ have bothered cooking all that food; they'd eaten before they arrived.


D Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

1. His lights are on so I'm pretty sure Dan is at home.                                                   as

Dan must be at home as his lights are on.

2.Susie's car's not here so she's almost certainly taking Dobber to the vet.                    be

Susie _______________ Dobber to the vet since her car's nothere.

3. There's no way that boy's Simon. He's much taller!                                                   boy

That _______________ Simon. He's much taller!

4. I'm certain the Winners don't think we're coming tonight; we arranged it for next Tuesday.expecting

The Winners _______________ tonight; we arranged it for next Tuesday.

5. I bet you were exhausted after such a long journey!                                                  have

You _______________ exhausted after such a long journey!

6. The only explanation is that Evan was on the phone to someone in Australia!          talking

Evan _______________ on the phone to someone in Australia!

7. There's no way Casey won the disco dancing competition - he's got two left feet!  have

Casey _______________ the disco dancing competition - he's gottwo left feet!

8. I don't believe Helen's been trying to call us all day.The phone hasn't rung once.     been

Helen _______________ to call us all day.The phone hasn't rungonce.


E Use the words in the box only once to complete the sentences in Table A. The meaning of the sentences in Table В will help you.

able • cannot • could • had • have • might • must needn't • mustn't • ought • should • will


Table A Table В
1. I must have left my bag on thebus. expressing certainty
2. In a few months, I'll be … to buy a car. expressing future ability
3. I … drive when I was thirteen years old! expressing past ability
4. No, you … have any more pocket money! refusing a request
5. I think you … consider a career in the armed forces. giving advice
6. expressing personal obligation
7. expressing external obligation in the past
8. You don't … to do Exercise D for homework. expressing a lack of obligation
9. You … have to work a lot harder if you want to get a good report. expressing future obligation
10. They … to arrive at about 8. expressing probability
11. Sean … have got stuck in traffic. expressing possibility
12. I … have worried so much about Jan’s present. She loved it! expressing a lack of past obligation


F   Circle the correct answer.

1. … I have a look at those shoes in the window, please?

A Must                              В Would

С Should                           D Could

2. We … pay for the tickets as Josie won them in a competition.

A mustn't                          В didn't have to

С couldn't                         D hadn't to

3. You really … make such a mountain out of a molehill!

A can't                               В won't

С mightn't                         D shouldn't

4. You won't … to connect to the Internet once you've got broadband as you're online twenty-four hours a day.

A need                                          В must

С ought                             D able

5. I hope we … find the cinema easily.

A could                             В may

С might                             D can

6. We couldn't find a hotel room so we … sleep in the car. It was awful!

A must                                          В should

С had to                            D could

7. We'd love to … afford to go on a round-the-world cruise.

A can                                 В be able to

С will have to                    D have to

8. Fiona can't … about the meeting. I reminded her this morning!

A forget                            В be forgetting

С have forgotten               D have been forgetting

9. She could ...in the garage when we came round, which would explain why she didn't hear the bell. A work                    В be working

С have worked                  D have been working

10. You'll … tell the police that your house was broken into.

A have to                          В must

С had to                            D should


G   Write a modal or semi-modal in each gap to replace the phrase in brackets. Add any other words you need.

1. Bruce can  (is able to) finish most crosswords in under ten minutes.

2. Charlotte didn't get to the Craig David concert because she _______ (wasn't able to) get tickets.

3. I _______ (had the opportunity to go) to Oxford but I decided to go to a more modern university.

4. You _______ (were wrong to tell) Angus. You know he can't keep a secret!

5. If you have a cashpoint card, you _______ (are not forced to) go into the bank to get money from your account.

6. We _______ (were made to) apologise to the police for wasting their time.

7. That _______ (almost definitely wasn't) the last can of soda in the fridge. I bought loads this morning!

8. _______ (Wereyou obliged to) talk about two photographs during the interview?

9. Children _______ (are not allowed to) be left unattended.

10. The weather _______ (willprobably) be good tomorrow.


H  Choose the correct answer.


Choosing to go to a gym regularly (1) _______ change your life for the better. Don't let it be a decision

you regret!

Good gyms have a lot to offer. They (2) _______ provide exercise equipment that is just too expensiveto buy and their trained staff are (3) _______ to provide quality health and fitness advice. But if you'replanning to join a gym, you (4) _______ definitely ask to look round before you become a member. There are a number of things to bear in mind before choosing which gym to join.

Before the law changed a few years ago, anyone (5) _______ set up a gym and even today gyms(6) _______ employ trained fitness instructors. Find out what qualifications the staff have. If they'reuntrained, it's best to go elsewhere.

You (7) _______ be put off by the gym's hard sell. Just because they want you to sign up - they wantyour money, after all - that doesn't mean you (8) _______ decide there and then. See a few gyms before you make your final decision.

Ask yourself: What kind of equipment and facilities do they have? There's little point joining agym and then thinking a few months later,'I (9) _______ have chosen a gym with a pool.' Do you(10) _______ book equipment in advance, or can you just turn up and use it? How busy does the gym get? It (11) _______ be very pleasant turning up to find there's no room in the changing roomand there's a huge queue for each piece of equipment. It (12) _______ also be a good idea to talk topeople who already go to that gym to find out their opinion.

1. A must                      В would            С should           D will have to

2. A can                        В could             С would            D must

3. A made                     В forced           С allowed         D able

4. A should                    В would            С might             D will

5. A can                        В could             С might             D may

6. A mustn't                    В don't have to      С can't                    D shouldn't

7. A mustn't                    В couldn't         С won't             D mightn't

8. A can't                      В can                    С would            D have to

9. A ought to               В must                    С have to          D can't

10. A able                     В must                    С have to          D allowed

11. A won't have to        В doesn't have to  С mustn't          D won't

12. A must                    В might             С has to            D ought to


I   Write one word in each gap.

When I broke my arm a week ago, I guess it (1) ought to have hurt. But it didn't! We weredoing PE at school, and we were making a pyramid. We (2) ________ to stand on each other'sshoulders. I was right at the top. We (3) ________ have been doing it properly because suddenlythe pyramid collapsed and we all fell. I landed on my arm.

Mr Jenkins (4) ________ have known immediately that I'd broken my arm because he sentsomeone to call an ambulance.'Sit still, and don't move your arm at all until the ambulance comes,'he said. I (5) ________ still remember the feeling - my arm was numb, and looked very strange, but there was no pain at all. I remember thinking:'lt (6) ________ be broken. If it was broken, I'dbe in agony.'I suppose not feeling any pain (7) ________ have been because I was in shock.

The plaster (8) ________ come off in about three weeks but it (9) ________ have to stay onlonger. It depends on whether the break has healed properly or not. The next three weeks may(10) ________ be the best three weeks of my life - no basketball, no playing in the playground,no swimming - but I'm counting my blessings. It (11) ________ have been a lot worse!



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