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The passive / the causative / direct and indirect objects

( The passive )

Form      noun + be in the correct form + past participle (+ by/with + noun)

Active Passive
present simple They grow bananas in tropical areas. am/is/are + past participle Bananas are grown in tropical areas.
present continuous They are redecorating the cafe. am/is/are + -ing + past participle The cafe is being redecorated.
present perfect simple Has anyone peeled the carrots? has/have + been + past participle Have the carrots been peeled?
past simple They served the meal in an elegant dining room. was/were + past participle The meal was served in an elegant dining room.
past continuous We asked for coffee while they were preparing the bill. was/were + -ing + past participle We asked for coffee while the bill was being prepared.
past perfect simple Someone had eaten all the food by the time I got there. has + been + past participle All the food had been eaten by the time 1 got there.
will future We will deliver your pizza in forty minutes.             will + be + past participle Your pizza will be delivered in forty minutes.
be going to future Overweight customers are going to sue Burgerland. is/are going to + be + past participle Burgerland is going to be sued by overweight customers.
future perfect simple They will have harvested all the grapes by the end of September. will + have + been + past participle All the grapes will have been harvested by the end of September.
modal You should brush the chicken breast with oil and then fry it. modal + be + past participle The chicken breast should be brushed with oil and then fried.
modal + perfect infinitive They should have delivered the groceries by now. modal + have + been + past participle The groceries should have been delivered by now.
- ing (gerund) I don't like people telling me what to do in the kitchen. being + past participle I don't like being told what to do in the kitchen.


Use Example
When we don't know who does/did something My groceries have been stolen!
When it's obvious who does/did something A boy was arrested in town yesterday for stealing an apple.
When it's not important who does/did something The French bistro is being knocked down.
When we want to emphasise new information or use a formal style The potato was brought to Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh.


• We do not normally use verbs in the passive in the present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future continuous or future perfect continuous tenses. Instead, we use a different phrase.

The restaurant has been under construction for four yours.

The restaurant has been being built for four years.

Dave has been in training as a chef for three years.

Dave has been being trained as a chef for three years.

• We only normally use 'by' to say who did something when it is important information.

Margarine was invented by a French chef.

The best pizzas are made by the Italians.

• We usually use 'with' when we talk about the thing used to do something.

The soup should then be stirred with a spoon.

The soup should then be stirred by a spoon.


 ( The impersonal passive )

To express other people's opinions in a formal style, we can use two special forms of the passive. They can be used with a number of verbs, including: say, believe, think, claim, estimate, etc. Some other verbs (argue, suggest, calculate, etc) are usually used with only the second structure.

Form      noun + is/are said to + bare infinitive/perfect infinitive

              It is said that + clause

Active Passive
People think he is a great chef. He is thought to be a great chef. It is thought that he is a great chef.
People believe he was a great chef. He is believed to have been a great chef. It is believed that he was a great chef.
People claim he has had an influence on many other chefs. He is claimed to have had an influence on many other chefs. It is claimed that he has had an influence on many other chefs.
People say he has been making the best cheese in the area for over thirty years. He is said to have been making the best cheese in the area for over thirty years. It is said that he has been making the best cheese in the area for over thirty years.
People estimated that his restaurant was worth over $10 million. His restaurant was estimated to be/to have been worth over $10 million. It was estimated that his restaurant was worth over $10 million.
People have suggested that he is a great chef. It has been suggested that he is a great chef.


 ( The causative )

Form noun.+ have/get in the correct form + noun + past participle (+ by/with + noun)

Use Example
  To show that someone arranges for someone else to do something for them I have my groceries delivered by the supermarket once a week. We are having a new cooker put in tomorrow. We had a large wedding cake made. Have you had your kitchen decorated? We are going to have the food for the party made by a catering company.
To refer to an unpleasant situation which hasn't been arranged We had our herb garden vandalised while we were away. The Smiths have had their new microwave stolen.


• Using the verb get is usually more informal than using have.

Can you go and get this recipe photocopied for me?

• We can also use get somebody to do and have somebody do when we want to refer to the person we arrange to do something for us.

Why don't you get the chef to prepare you a vegetarian meal?

Why don't you have the chef prepare you a vegetarian meal?


( Direct and indirect objects )

Some verbs can be followed by both a direct and an indirect object (usually a person).

These verbs include:

bring, buy, get, give, lend, make, offer, owe, pass, promise, send, show, take, teach, tell, write, etc.

Active Passive
We can put the indirect object either immediately after the verb, or at the end of the sentence with a preposition (for/to, etc). A friend gave my sister this cookery book. A friend gave this cookery book to my sister. The subject of the sentence can be either the indirect object or the direct object of the active sentence. My sister was given this cookery book by a friend. This cookery book was given to my sister by a friend.


A   Choose the correct word or phrase.

1. The prime minister was / has criticised for his recent actions.

2. When I walked past the Wilsons' house, their new sofa was / has being delivered.

3. Our teacher was / has told us to take our favourite book to school tomorrow.

4. I think my mobile was / has been stolen!

5.Jonathan was / has chosen to play the lead role in the school play.

6. I'm sleeping downstairs because my bedroom is being painted / has been painting.

7. This picture was / has probably taken during the winter.

8. Your essays must be / have handed in on Friday morning.

9. Someone was / has left their wallet on the floor.

10. Did you hear about the bank being / having robbed?

11. Treasure Island was / has written by Robert Louis Stevenson.

12. It was a real shock when my dad was / has fired from his job.

13. The Vikings had visited America before it was / has discovered by Columbus.

14. When we got to the airport, we learned that our flight was / had been delayed.

15. Was / Has your ticket for the concert tomorrow paid for by you or your parents?


В   Complete using the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1. The Earth ….. (hold) by the gravity of the Sun and orbits around it.

2. The first feature-length comedy film ….. (create) by Charlie Chaplin.

3. The award for best video ….. (present) later this evening.

4. By the time you read this, I ….. (arrest) for murder.

5. I don't know whether our tests ….. (mark) yet or not.

6. Radio waves ….. (discover) by Marconi.

7. You wouldn't think it to look at him now, but Jack ….. (bully) when he was at school.

8. Your application ….. (consider) and we will let you know as soon as we've made a decision.

9. The roof of the car can ….. (lower) by pressing this button here.

10. Our tent ….. (blow) over in the night by the wind.

11. Chess ….. (play) for around two thousand years now.

12. Two men ….. (question) at this moment by police in connection with the burglary.


С   Write sentences in the passive.

1. Our car / service / a mechanic / at the moment.

2. A man / shoot / an air gun / outside the petrol station last night.

3. Gunpowder / invent / the Chinese.

4. At the surgery yesterday, I / examine / Dr Peterson / and I / give / a prescription.

5. I went to see it because I / tell / it was a good film / all my friends.

6. This photograph / take / my grandfather.

7. It looked like the window / break / a hammer / some time before.

8. Our dog / give / an injection / a special syringe / the vet.

9. The winning goal in last night's match / score / Donatello / a brilliant free kick.

10. Your cheque / send / last Friday and / should / deliver / to you tomorrow.


D   Rewrite using the phrase given.

1. They have been building the new road for a long time now. (under construction)

2. They had been training the horse for the race for over a year, (in training)

3. They have been dicusssing the issue in Parliament, (under discussion)

4. They had been observing the criminal for the past two weeks, (under observation)

5. They have been using this plane for over 25 years now. (in use)

6. They have been developing the Cyborg D423 robot for over ten years, (in development)


E  Rewrite in the passive starting with the words given.

1. People say that Bali is a beautiful island.

It …..

2. People generally think that life won't be found on Mars.

It …..

3. It is generally said that Christmas is too commercialised.

Christmas …..

4. People often argue that prison doesn't work.

It …..

5. People have suggested that the school should start to produce a magazine.

It …..

6. People say that crocodile tastes like squid.

Crocodile …..

7. It is said that the Vikings discovered America before Columbus.

The Vikings …..

8. People think that heart disease is caused by eating the wrong things.

Heart disease …..


F   Choose the correct answer.

1. We ….. a swimming pool put in this week.

A. get                                В. are having

С. Have                             D. have got

2. Why don't you get a doctor ….. at your arm?

A. to look                          В. looked

С. Look                             D. be looking

3. My teeth were a little yellow so I ….. by the dentist.

A. had cleaned them         В. have them cleaned

С. was cleaned them         D. had them cleaned

4. Stuart's thinking of having ….. .

A shaved his head             В his head shaving

С his head shaved             D shaved to his head

5. My sister ….. her ear pierced last weekend.

A. made                            В. got

С. Did                               D. took

6. Mum and Dad didn't fancy cooking, so we got a pizza ….. .

A. be delivered                 В. to be delivered

С. Delivered                      D. deliver

7. You should ….. a professional to check your house for earthquake damage.

A. have                              В. make

С. Take                              D. get

8. Kelly wanted to have a live band ….. at her wedding.

A. to be played                 В. Play

С. Played                          D. been playing

9. Can we ….. this summer?

A. get installed air-conditioning               В. get air-conditioning to install

С. have installed air-conditioning            D. have air-conditioning installed

10 We ….. while we were on holiday.

A. were burgled our house                       В. had our house burgled

С. had burgled our house                         D. got burgled our house


G   Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

1. Someone has scratched my car on the door!                                                              been

My car has been scratched on the door!

2. Tommy is having an operation right now.                                                                  being

Tommy ….. right now.

3. Has Fiona invited you to her party?                                                                           been

Have ….. party?

4. Shakespeare probably wrote this play in 1587.                                                           written

This play ….. Shakespeare in 1587.

5.The government is considering a new law to ban smoking following new research.  considered

A new law to ban smoking ….. following new research.

6. My mum told me to go to Megagrocers.                                                                    sent

I ….. my mum.

7. I didn't understand a word so I asked my teacher and she explained it to me.         got

I didn't understand a word so I ….. it to me.


H Find the extra word in each line.


1. being _____ My wedding had been being arranged for months. I knew exactly what I

2.___________ wanted for that special day. I had the caterers to give me a menu and

3.___________ have got them to provide me with samples so that I could be sure we

4.___________ would have the best food. I also wanted to have us a string quartet play

5.___________ classical music and I arranged that, too. My dress was been being made

6.___________ specially and I had told the dressmaker put silver thread in it. Finally, the

7.___________ big day got arrived. My dress was being delivered in the morning, but by

8.___________ ten it still hadn't arrived. They called me and said it had been being

9.___________ damaged! I was furious! I had my best friend quickly to pop out and get

10.___________ a new dress. I had got my lawyer to call to get my money back.


I   Rewrite with the indirect object at the end of the sentence.

1. My dad got me a great computer game!

My dad got a great computer game for me.

2. Dave sent Jill a really nice letter.

3. I threw Colin the ball.

4. The waiter offered us a menu.

5. The hotel provides its guests with satellite television.

6. My grandma taught me this song.


J   Write one word in each gap.


It's hard for us to imagine what (1) …… included in the European diet before America (2) ….. discovered (3) ….. Columbus in 1492. So many ingredients which today (4) ….. grown all over the world (5) ….. unknown to medieval Europeans.

Potatoes, tomatoes, maize and chocolate (6) ….. all originally imported from the New World. Until then, meals had (7) ….. prepared using ingredients native to Europe, such as root vegetables. Of course, spices such as pepper (8) ….. been traded and added to food for centuries. When the potato (9) ….. first introduced, it was surprisingly unpopular. It (10) ….. considered to be poisonous and it took a long time to become common. There is a story of Parmentier,a French army officer, who (11) ….. potatoes planted in the royal garden and (12) ….. Marie Antoinette to wear a potato flower to make them fashionable.

The poor peasants were curious about the new plants and many of them (13) ….. stolen to be planted in their own gardens. It was the start of French fries!



Unit 16                            Vocabulary

Food and drink

Topic vocabulary in contrast                                                         see page 192 for definitions

chop /slice/grate lunch / dinner freezer/fridge
bake / grill / fry / roast / boil plate / bowl / saucer / dish frozen / freezing
cook / cooker / chef vegetable / vegetarian / vegan mix/stir/whisk
oven / grill / hob fast food / takeaway soft drink / fizzy drink
kitchen / cuisine kettle/teapot menu/catalogue


Phrasal verbs

drop in (on) visit unexpectedly put off make sb not want to do or not like sth get on for be almost a particular time, number, age, etc run into meet by chance go off be no longer fresh run out of not have any left go on continue happening or doing sth; do sth after doing sth else take to begin to like; begin to do sth regularly go/come round go/come to sb's house to visit them try out experiment with keep on continue doing sth turn out develop in a particular way or have a particular result leave out not include turn up appear unexpectedly or without making a firm arrangement


Phrases and collocations

cook a good/great/etc cook; cook a meal/chicken/etc; do the cooking
drink make (sb) a drink; have a drink (of sth); drink sth; drink to sb; drink to sb's health; drink a toast to sb
feed feed an animal/etc; feed on sth
fill fill sth (up); filled with sth; full of sth
food make/prepare/cook/serve food;fast/junk food; pet food; health food
meal make/cook/have a meal; go out for a meal
note make/take/keep (a) note of sth; note sth (down)
occasion on this/that occasion; on occasion; on the occasion of sth; special occasion
recipe follow a recipe; recipe book; recipe for disaster
table lay/set/clear the table; book/reserve a table
wash wash the dishes; wash one's hands; do the washing-up; dishwasher; washing machine


Word patterns

associate sth/sb with sth/sb regard sb as (being) sth
careful with/about/of sth remember to do; remember sth/sb/doing; remember that
choose between; choose to do suggest sth/doing (to sb); suggest that
compliment sb on sth tend to do
full of sth wait for sth/sb; wait (for sth) to do; wait and see
lack sth; lack of sth; lacking in sth willing to do
offer sb sth; offer sth (to sb); offer to do  


Word formation

anxious anxiously, anxiety grow growth, grown-up, growing, grown, home-grown, grower safe unsafe, (un)safely, save, safety, saviour, saver
appreciate (un)appreciative(ly), appreciation mix mixed, mixture, mixer surprise (un)surprising(ly), surprised
contain container, content(s) origin (un)original(ly), originate, originator sweet sweetly, sweetener, sweetness
create creative(ly), creation, creativity, creator prepare preparation, preparatory, (un)prepared thorough thoroughly, thoroughness
disgust disgusting, disgusted


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