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LIVING TOGETHER IN SOCIETY




1 ____________ Hell, said Jean-Paul Sartre, is other people, and whether you agree with

2 ____________ or not, we are all have to learn to live together. We may not always

3 ____________ approve of that other people's behaviour, but we do have to live with it.

4 ____________ It is impossible to force other people in to behave exactly how we think

5 ____________ they should behave. Of course, the law bans from all kinds of behaviour

6 ____________ and if you can convince to enough people, you might be able to get the

7 ____________ government to pass a new law. Mostly, though, you have to let off people

8 ____________ live their own lives, in the same way you expect them to allow you for to

9 ____________ live your life. You don't have to pretend it that you like how some other

10 ____________ people live, but letting them to be themselves is often the only choice.

 

Word formation

H   Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.

I had a really stupid (1) ____________ with my best friend the other day. It all         ARGUE

started because we were talking about (2) ____________ and having a family.           MARRY

I said that (3) ____________ is important when you are married and she said             POLITE

that she thought that was rubbish and that (4) ____________ is much more                KIND

important. Well, we were (5) ____________ to agree and, in the end, she left             ABLE

without saying goodbye. I do hope it doesn't spoil our (6) ____________ .                 FRIEND

 

I Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals when this is necessary.

1. My best friend has a great ____________ (PERSON) and everyone likes her.

2. I have a good ____________ (RELATE) with my mum and I can talk to her about anything.

3. They've just published a book of George Bush's ____________ (CORRESPOND) and it looks really interesting.

4. Jenny seemed ____________ (WILLING) to talk about her argument with Nancy but I eventually got the facts.

5. As I waited for Kelly to arrive at the cinema, I bit my nails ____________ (NERVE).

6. Ignore what Sharon says about you. It's just ____________ (JEALOUS).

7. In the past, children were expected to be very ____________ (OBEY).

8. Brenda blames her ____________ (HAPPY) on being single, but I'm not so sure.

9. Tom knew that being chosen as class president was a real ____________ (ACHIEVE).

10. Kevin's so sensitive that you have to be very ____________ (CARE) what you say to him.

 

 

Units 9 and 10                              REVIEW 5

A  Write one word in each gap.

CULTURE SHOCK

Many people dream (1) ________ living in a foreign country. It can be an amazing experience for those who (2) ________ the courage to leave their family and friends and settle (3) ________ in a new place. However, there's one potential problem you should be aware of: culture shock. Culture shock is the feeling we get from living in a place that is so different to where we

(4) ________ up that we are not sure how to deal with it. Societies are organised in many differentways, and we can often be (5) ________ aback by some of the things we find in foreign countries.

Customs and traditions can be very different and that can sometimes make it difficult to (6) ________ on with local people and to (7) ________ friends. They might not approve(8) ________ things you do or might object (9) ________ things you say. You might even bebanned (10) ________ doing things in another country that are perfectly legal in your own.

(11) ________ you were to move to a country such as Singapore, say, you might find some of thelaws very strict.There, people can be forced (12) ________ pay a large fine just for dropping litter.Eventually, though, most people who live abroad (13) ________ in love with their adoptedcountry and learn to accept its differences. It does (14) ________ real courage to make such a bigchange to your life, but many people agree (15) ________ it is worth it in the end.

(1 mark per answer)

В Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals when this is necessary.

16. My ________ (FRIEND) with Harriet is one of the most important things in my life.

17. Many parents complain of their children's ________ (OBEY), but I think they were probably exactly the same.

18. Don't listen to Mary - she's just ________ (JEALOUS) of you.

19. We all watched ________ (NERVE) as Mark made his speech of thanks.

20. Don't you think that we should make sure that ________ (ABLE) people have the same rights as everyone else?

21. Terry is really ________ (ARGUE) and is always looking for fights with other people.

22. Hasn't anyone ever told you that it's very ________ (POLITE) to interrupt when other people are talking?

(1 mark per answer)

С   Complete the second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

23. I promised my mum that I would work hard this year.                                            made

I made my mum a promisethat I would work hard this year.

24. My parents allowed me to go out even though it was very late.                                          let

My parents ________________________ even though it was very late.

25. Margaret and I have had an argument, so we're not talking to each other.              out

Margaret and I ________________________ , so we're not talking to each other.

26. Nobody approved of the new law when it was introduced.                                    approval

The new law didn't ________________________ when it was introduced.

27. I didn't want to have an argument, so I changed the subject.                                  mood

I wasn't ________________________ an argument, so I changed the subject.

28.Tina was depressed because shen couldn’t make friends at summer camp.         inability

Ttna wasidepirewed because ________________________ Friends at summer camp.

29. 'Could you open the door for me, please?' said Simon.                                            me

Simon ________________________ the door for him.

30.Make sure you look after your little brotherwhtle I’m out.                                       care

Make sure you ________________________ your little brotherwhtle I’m out.

(2 marks per answer)

В Choose the correct answer.

31. If I … the lottery I'd give some of the money to each member of my family.

A win                           В have won

C will win                     D won

32.'Do you have an argument with Francis?' – 'If you had been there, you … the same.'

A did                            В would have done

С had done                   D will do

33. If you see Nina on Friday,      … her to give me a ring.

A you will tell                   В tell to

С you would have told     D tell

34. If I’d known you werecoming, I …a cake.

A would have baked         В would bake

С will bate                         D baked

35. Remind Tony about the party … he's forgotten.

A in case                           В unites

С provided that                 D except

36. 'Did you have a message for Dan?' – Tell him I’ll call him on Friday if you … him.'

A hadseen                         B see

С will see                          D saw

(1 mark per answer)

E Choose the correct answer.

37. This fascinating book covers some of the most … crimes of the twentieth century.

A unknown                       С covered

В hidden                       D infamous

38. The government should do more for … people.

A usual                         С everyday

В ordinary                    D typical

39. Ivan tells me he really … himself at your barbecue last week.

A pleased                      С enjoyed

В played                       D interested

40. I know we had an argument, but now I'd quite like to … .

A look down                    С fallout

В make up                    D bring up

41. Harry and Sam both denied that the fight was their … .

A blame                        С criticism

В cause                         D fault

42. The curtain went up, the … grew silent and the actors on stage began to speak.

A crowd                       С jury

В congregation                  D audience

(1 mark per answer)

Total mark: …/ 50

 

 

Unit 11                            Grammar

• Comparatives and superlatives / so, such, enough, too/

( Comparative and superlative adjectives)

adjective

Comparative

superlative
regular adjectives with one syllable black

+ -er

blacker

+ -est blackest
regular adjectives with one syllable (ending in vowel + consonant) thin

double final letter + -er

thinner

double final letter + -est thinnest
regular adjectives with two syllables (ending in -y) funny

replace -y with -ier

funnier

replace -y with -iest funniest
regular adjectives with two or more syllables intelligent

more/less + adj

more intelligent

most / least + adj most intelligent
irregular adjectives / quantifiers good bad far little much/many

better

worse

farther /further

less

more

best worst farthest /furthest least most

Use

Example

Comparative

To compare things or people that are different

The crime rate in this area is higher than in other parts of the country.

Superlative

To compare one member of a group of people or things with the whole group

The robbery was the biggest in the bank's history.

WATCH OUT

• Regular adjectives with two syllables can often also form the comparative and superlative like adjectives with one syllable.

clever, cleverer, cleverest

• Adjectives with one syllable that end in -e add -r and -st.

white, whiter, whitest

• Remember that comparative forms are often followed by than.

Crime is a much bigger problem in this country than in many other countries.

• Remember that superlative forms are often preceded by the.

Our local police force is the best in the country.

         

 

( Comparative and superlative adverbs)

adverb

Comparative

superlative
regular adverbs easily

more/less + adv

more easily

most/least + adv most easily
    irregular adverbs badly early far fast hard late often near soon well

worse

earlier

farther /further

faster

harder

later

moreoften

nearer

sooner

better

worst earliest farthest /furthest fastest hardest latest most often neaestr soonest best

Use

Example

Comparative

To compare actions that are different

Lock your door more carefully next time and maybe you won't get burgled!

Superlative

To compare actions of one member of a group of people or things with the whole group

Only the criminal who ran fastest managed to escape from the police.

         

 

( So)

Formso + adjective + that

                   so + adverb + that

                   so + many/much + noun + that

Use Example
To show the results of a situation or action The burglar was so clever that no one could catch him. Jane took the money so quickly that no one saw her. There was so much money that the robber couldn't carry it all.

WATCH OUT

• The word that is not usually necessary to introduce the second clause.

The crime rate is so high people are very frigh tened.

• The word so has a number of other uses. Try not to get confused between them.

The crime rate is so high that people are very frightened.

I saw that burglar leaving the house, so I called the police.

 

( Such)

Form               such + a/an + adjective + singular noun + that

                        such + adjective + plural noun + that

                        such + a lot of + noun + that

Use Example
To show the results of a situation or action It was such a terrible crime that the man was sent to prison for life. The security guard had such good hearing that he heard the door open immediately. There is such a lot of crime here that the police can't cope.

 

( Enough)

Form            enough + noun (+ for and/or + full infinitive)

                     adjective + enough (+ for and/or + full infinitive)

                    adverb + enough (+ for and/or + full infinitive)

Use Example
To show the results of a situation or action where there is/isn't the right amount/number of something There aren't enough police officers on the streets to keep us safe. It wasn't darkenough for the burglar to start working. Did the police respond quicklyenough to help?

WATCH OUT

• A common mistake is to put enough before an adjective when the correct word is quite or fairly.

It's quite / fairly dangerous around here so don't go out alone.

It's enough dangerous around here so don tgo out alone.

 

( Too)

Form            too + adjective (+ for and/or + full infinitive)

                 too + adverb (+ for and/or + full infinitive)

                 too + many/much + noun (+ for and/or + full infinitive)

Use Example
To describe something that is more than necessary and I which has a negative effect The young man was too young to go to prison. We arrived too late for the start of the trial. We send too many innocent people to prison.

WATCH OUT

• We do not use too when we want to describe something we consider to be positive. Instead, we use very, really or extremely.

You were very /really / extremely lucky not to get caught.

You were too lucky not to get caught.

 

A  Complete using the comparative forms of the words in capitals.

1. Your brother is much taller  (TALL) than mine.

2. This island used to be much ________ (GREEN) before the forest fires.

3. Slow down! You're ________ (FIT) than me and I can't keep up!

4. Veronica seems ________ (HAPPY) since she moved schools.

5. It's actually ________ (TRENDY) to wear your hair up this year.

6. As the time for the performance got nearer, I got ________ (NERVOUS).

7. Old people are often ________ (WISE) than young people.

8. Why don't you try and find a ________ (CHEAP) computer game and savesome money?

9. Matt seems to have got even ________ (LAZY) than he used to be andalmost never studies.

10. If the problem gets any ________ (SERIOUS), we may need to inform themanager about it.

11. If you work ________ (QUICKLY), you'll finish sooner and then you can gohome earlier.

12. Ben says he's feeling much ________ (WELL) after his illness.

13. I have even ________ (LITTLE) free time this year than I did last year.

14. The news was much ________ (BAD) than anyone had feared.

15. You'll need to be able to run ________ (FAR) than this if you're going to dothe marathon.

 

В Complete using the superlative forms of the words in capitals.

1. I think Mohammed Ali was the greatest (GREAT) boxer that ever lived.

2. It was the ________ (BORING) film I had ever seen.

3. Our teacher told us that the student with the ________ (HIGH) mark wouldget a prize.

4. Ginger is one of the ________ (LUCKY) cats alive - he's been hit by a carthree times and has never been hurt!

5. Out of all the students in my music school, I practise ________ (OFTEN).

6. The Pacific is the ________ (DEEP) ocean in the world.

7. That's the ________ (UGLY) fish I've ever seen!

8. I was ill before the exam and I did ________ (BADLY) out of the whole class.

9. The ________ (FAR) I've run in one day is about ten kilometres.

10. Don't you think this would be the ________ (LOVELY) spot for a picnic?

11. But that's the ________ (CRAZY) idea I've ever heard!

12. I asked the assistant to show me the ________ (MODERN) phone they had.

13. I told the manager that it was the ________ (BAD) hotel I had ever stayed in.

14. Who do you think is the ________ (LITTLE) talented actor to win an Oscar?

15. Out of all the members of the choir, Jason sang ________ (WELL).

 

С Circle the correct word.

FILM REVIEW

Crime Does Pay, the (1) later / latest comedy from director Sam Martin, has to be one of the(2)little / least interesting films I have ever seen.The acting is terrible and the story is much(3)worse / worst than Martin's other flop, Escape. Crime Does Pay was apparently (4) more / most expensive than any other film this year, but it's hard to see where the money went.The plot concerns a gang of burglars who decide to steal the (5) more / most valuable painting in the world. Fine, except these criminals are far (6) less / least amusing than they should be.There isn't a single real laugh in the whole movie. When I saw it, even (7) younger / youngest members of the audience thought it was stupidly childish. Dean Richards, playing Scarnose, does a slightly (8) better / best job than the others, but there isn't much in it. When will Hollywood realise that as ticket prices get (9) higher / highest, more people are finding that the (10) well / best form of entertainment is to spend an evening at home with a DVD?

D   Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

1. I have never read a better book than this one.                                                            ever

This is the best book I have ever read.

2. Nobody has ever been this far into the jungle.                                                           the

This is._____________________ has ever been into the jungle.

3. I have never worked so hard in my whole life.                                                          ever

It was the._____________________ in my whole life.

4. Liam is the tallest boy in the class.                                                                             than

Every other boy in the class._____________________ Liam.

5. This is the nicest beach along this part of the coast.                                                   than

This._____________________ the others along this part of the coast.

6. I read that Mount Everest is the highest mountain.                                                    no

I read that._____________________ Mount Everest.

7. Has anyone ever been this far north before?                                                              the

Is._____________________ has ever been?

8. The painting Ed did is the ugliest one you can imagine.                                            than

You can't imagine._____________________ the one Ed did.

9. This stamp is rarer than any other in my collection.                                                    more

The other stamps in my collection._____________________ this one.

10. Nobody in the class runs as fast as Pedro.                                                           runner

Pedro._____________________ in the class.

 

E Rewrite each sentence using so... that.

1 John can see over the wall because he is tall. – John is so tall that he can see over the wall.

2 I'm sure my sister will go to university because she is clever. –

3 I can't stop playing this computer game because it's good. –

4 Tim can't come out because he has a lot of work to do. –

5 It's hot, which means I can't sleep. –

6 Tina arrived late, which meant she missed the train. –

7 We don't have any money for luxuries because we have a lot of bills to pay. –

8 It takes a day to get to Australia because it's very far away. –

 

F Match to make sentences.

1. Last year, winter started so                  Amany storms that we had floods.

2. Last winter, there were so               Вcold that the water in the pipes froze.

3. Last year, we had such                    Сa cold winter that 1 had to sleep with a hat on!

4. Last winter, there was so                 Dsuddenly that many people were taken bysurprise.

5. Last winter, there was such a lot of     Emuch snow that 1 skied nearly every day.

6. Last winter was so                           Fsnow that many wild animals died.

 

G Circle the correct word or phrase.

1. I don't think there's enough pizza / pizza enough for everyone.

2. I'm afraid you're not enough old / old enough to see this film.

3. Luckily, we got to the box office enough early / early enough and got the tickets.

4. Anne's enough sensible / sensible enough to realise she needs to work hard this year.

5. If you don't train enough hard / hard enough, you'll never win the race.

6. Have you got enough credits / credits enough to call Yiota on your mobile?

7. It should be enough warm / warm enough for a picnic this weekend.

8. I don't think I'm good enoughfor getting / to get into the swimming team.

9. Are you sure you've got enough chairs for us all to sit down / we all sit down?

10. In mountaineering,you have to be strong enoughfor pull / to pull yourself up with your fingers.

 

H Tick (✓) the correct sentences. If a sentence is incorrect, write another word to replace the word in bold.

1. I wanted to get some new trainers but they were too expensive. ____✓ __

2. Japanese is a too difficult language for Westerners to learn. very/really

3. Daniel's too good at art and he's starting art school next year. _________

4. Don't invite too many people to the party or we won't have enough room. _________

5. If you try to write your essay too quickly, you'll make mistakes . _________

6. My new computer is too fast and can run all the latest programs       . _________

7. Joanne was fined for driving too fast. _________

8. Carol couldn't climb over the wall because it was too high. _________

9. Cornwall is too beautiful and we go there every year on holiday. _________

10. My grandparents are too old to work now and have retired. _________

11. It was too dark for me to see the map and I got lost. _________

12. My best friend is too funny and always makes me laugh. _________

 

I Choose the correct answer.

1. It was … windy that I couldn'tstand up!

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

2. Everyone had … a good time whenwe went bowling that we agreed to goagain.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

3. Emma and Karen used to be … good friends that I'm surprised theydon't get on now.           

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

4. I hope I've got … money to pay for this meal!

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

5. I'm sorry, but I've got … much workto do to come to the beach today.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

6 My mum was      angry that I knewI'd better disappear for a while.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

7 They were … beautiful shoes that I decided I had to get them.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

8 The earthquake was … powerfulthat the town was destroyed.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

9. The shot was … quick for thegoalkeeper and the ball hit the back ofthe net.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

10. I had … a bad headache that I went to lie down for a while.

A so                       С enough

В such                   D too

 

J Write one word in each gap.

CRIMESTOPPERS

'Hello, and welcome to Crimestoppers, the show that lets you, the viewer, help the police. We'vehad (1)sucha lot of letters this week that it's difficult to know where to begin. We'll startwith the story of Mrs Pat Williams, of Cambridge. Last Friday, Pat decided to go into town withher baby daughter. It's (2) ________ far to walk so they went to the bus stop. They waited(3) ________ a long time that baby Caroline started to cry. Pat picked the baby up out ofthe pram and she was (4) ________ busy she didn't notice the man beside her until it was(5) ________ late. He grabbed her handbag and ran off (6) ________ quickly for her tocatch him. It all happened (7) ________ fast that there was nothing anyone could do. Policeare appealing for witnesses. Maybe you were in the area. Maybe you think that what you saw is (8) ________ unimportant thac the police won't be interested. Remember that no detail is (9) ________ small to be useful to the police. Call us here at Crimestoppers now.'

 

 

Unit 12                            Vocabulary

 

The Law and Crime

Topic vocabulary in contrast                                                         see page 190 for definitions

proof / evidence rule / law / justice / right vandal / hooligan
suspect / arrest / charge judge/jury sentence / imprison
suspect/accused prosecute / persecute innocent/guilty
decision / verdict capital punishment / corporal punishment witness / bystander
commit / break robber / burglar / thief lawyer / solicitor

 

Phrasal verbs

back down stop demanding sth, stop saying that you will do sth hand in give to a person in authority break out escape (from prison) hold up rob while threatening violence; delay bring in introduce a new law or system let off give little or no punishment; make a bomb, etc explode chase after follow sb/sth quickly in order to catch them look into investigate come forward offer help or information make off escape get away with escape punishment for sth take down write down what someone says go off explode; be fired (for a gun, usually accidentally) take in trick sb into believing sth that is not true

 

Phrases and collocations

account on account of; take into account; account for sth
advantage take advantage of sth/sb;have an advantage over sth/sb;at an advantage; an/one/etc advantage (of sth)
blame be to blame (for sth/doing);get/take the blame (for sth/doing); put the blame on sth/sb; blame sth (on sb); blame sb for sth/doing
damage do/cause damage (to sth)
fault at fault;find fault with sth/sb
intention have the/no intention of doing
mistake make a mistake; a mistake (to do); mistake sb for sb;do sth by mistake
necessary necessary (for sb) to do
order in order; put sth in order; in order to do; give an order (to sb) (to do)
permission give sb permission to do; ask (sb) for permission to do; have/ask for/get permission (from sb) to do
purpose do sth on purpose; purpose of sth
reason reason why; reason for sth; reason with sb
solution have/find/think of/work out/come up with/figure out a solution (to sth)
wrong do wrong; do the wrong thing; the wrong thing to do; go wrong; the wrong way up

 

Word pattens

accuse sb of sth/doing doubt sth; doubt that; doubt if/whether make sb do; be made to do
arrest sb for sth/doing glimpse sth; catch a glimpse of sth refuse to do sth; refuse sth
charge sb with sth guilty of sth/doing respect sth; respect sb for sth/doing; have respect for sth/sb
claim to be/do; claim that forgive sb for sth/doing threaten to do, threaten sb with sth
deny sth/doing legal (for sb) to do

 

Word formation

accuse accused, accusation honest dishonest, (dis)honesty, (dis)honestly prison prisoner, imprison(ed), imprisonment
addict addicted, addictive, addiction investigate investigative, investigation, investigator prove proof, (un)proven, disprove
convict convicted, conviction law lawyer, (un)lawful rob robbery, robber
crime criminal murder murderer secure insecure, (in)security
evident evidence, evidently offence offensive, offend, offender theft thief
forge forgery, forger

 

 





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