Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 

Future time/present tenses in time clauses/prepositions of time and place

( Expressing the future: will/won't and be going to )

•        There is sometimes little difference in meaning between will and be going to. It is often just a matter of formality. Will is generally more formal than be going to.

Use Example
Facts about the future The website willcome online next week, (more formal) The website's going to come online next week, (more informal)
Predictions not based on present evidence In the future, everyone willhave their own flying car. (more formal) In the future, everyone is going to have their own flying car. (more informal)
Decisions made at the moment of speaking I've decided! Iwon't get a new DVD player just yet. (emphasising the decision) I've decided! I'm not going to get a new DVD player just yet (emphasising the intention)


•        Sometimes it is more appropriate to use will rather than be going to.

Use Example
Offers and suggestions I'll help you with your physics homework, if you like.
Requests Will you help me with my physics homework?
Most first conditional sentences If we get a computer, we'll be able to surf the Internet.


•        With offers and suggestions in the question form, we do not use will with I and we. We use


Shall I help you with your physics homework?

Will I help you with your physics homework?


•        Sometimes it is more appropriate to use be going to rather than will.

Use Example
Plans and intentions (which you already have when you speak) I'm going to be a famous doctor one day!
Predictions based on present evidence It sounds like the plane's going to take off in a few minutes.


( Expressing the future: present continuous )

Use Example
Arrangements made before the moment of speaking Are they installing the new computers next week?


( Expressing the future: present simple )

Use Example
Timetables, arrangements and fixed events (which the speaker cannot change) The bus to the science museum leaves at 8 o'clock tomorrow morning.
After if in first conditional and zero conditional sentences If technology continues to advance so quickly, what will life be like in a hundred years?
After certain time expressions (see below) We'll find out as soon as we get to the lab.


( Expressing the future: future perfect simple )

Form: will/won't + have + past participle

Use Example
Actions which are completed some time between now and a point in the future I'll have finished my chemistry homework by the time you come home.


( Expressing the future: future continuous)

Form:  will/won't + be + -ing form

Use Example
Actions in progress at a point in the future This time next week, I'll be taking my biology exam.
Habits or repeated actions at a point in the future In the future, we'll all be flying around using jet-packs.


( Expressing the future: future perfect continuous )

Form:      will/won't + have + been + -ing form

Use Example
Actions in progress up to a point in the future At seven o'clock, I'll have been doing my chemistry homework for three hours!


( Present tenses in time clauses)

In time clauses, we do not use will or be going to immediately after some time words and phrases. We use a present tense (present simple, present continuous or present perfect) to talk about the future.

Time words and phrases Example
when It'll be wonderful when scientists find/have found a cure for cancer.
as soon as Let me know as soon as your new computer arrives/has arrived.
before It'll be several years before we send/we've sent a manned mission to Mars.
after Let's go for a pizza after we go/have been to the natural history museum.
until/till The rocket won't be launched until they do/have done a final check.
while Think of me while you travel/are travelling to the Moon!
once We'll stop for petrol once we pass/we've passed Cambridge.


( Prepositions of time and place )

Key prepositions of time (from) Monday to Friday, on Monday, on my birthday/Easter Sunday/etc, in July, on September 20th, in 2008, in (the) summer, at three o'clock, in/for an hour, at the moment, in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night, in/on time, just in time for, in the beginning/end, at the beginning/end of, at the age of, at the weekend, next/last week
Key prepositions of place turn right at a place, sit on sth, go in(to) a building, wait in(side) a building, arrive in London/Greece, arrive at the stadium, in/on/at the corner (of), come/go/walk/etc to a place, next to/beside/by the building, at/on the front/back of, in front of/behind the station, go out of a building, go towards the station, between the two buildings, opposite the station
US vs UK Grammar •Speakers of American English do not always use on before days of the week. US: We've got a biology test Monday/on Monday. UK: We've got a biology test on Monday. •Speakers of American English often say'Monday through Friday'  US: I'm going to be on a field trip Monday through Friday. UK: I'm going to be on a field trip from Monday to Friday.


A   If a word or phrase in bold is correct, put a tick (∨). If it is incorrect, rewrite it correctly on the line, including all possibilities.

1. The universe is going to continue to expand for billions of years. _________________

2. Lookout! You will hit the car in front! _________________

3. I'm going to do the washing-up tonight, if you like. _________________

4. Do you think that, in the future, people will live to be hundreds of years old? _________________

5. Will I carry some of those bags for you, or can you manage? _________________

6. I know! I'm going to have a barbecue on my birthday! _________________

7. Are you going to just hold this door open for me for a minute? Thanks a lot! _________________

8. We've decided we will try that new restaurant after the play tomorrow night. _________________

9. We're going to fly to Jamaica in the summer. _________________

10. Shall we invite Tony and Tim round tonight? _________________

11. Are we going to invite Tony and Tim round tonight? _________________

12. Will you go to Jason's party next Saturday? _________________


В Circle the correct word or phrase. If both options are correct, circle both.

1. We aren't /We're not going to miss the train, are we?

2. I think I'm going to do / I'm doing really badly in the English test tomorrow.

3. Josh is going to sing / is singing a song in the school talent contest next week.

4. I'm going to buy / buying a big yacht if I can when I'm older.

5. Sports Day is going to be / being held on the last day of term.

6. Does / Will the concert on Thursday last more than two hours?

7. Are they going to broadcast / Will they broadcast the music awards live tomorrow night?

8. Do they broadcast / Are they broadcasting the music awards live tomorrow night?

9. According to the timetable, the train for Oxford leaves / is leaving at 10.15.

10. Does the restaurant open / Is the restaurant opening next Sunday?


С Write a word or short phrase in each gap.

At the end of this month, I'll (1) ___________ working on my physics project for about six weeks, but I've still got a lot to do before I hand it in. I'll (2) ___________spending the whole day in the physics lab next Saturday doing experiments, and in fact, I (3) ___________ playing football the weekend after either because I've got to go back to the lab then, too. I guess I'll (4) ___________ doing lots of similar projects when I'm at university, so it's good practice. Thinking about it, when I leave university in about four years, I will (5) ___________ studying physics for over thirteen years, so I should be quite good at it by then!


D   Complete using the future perfect simple or future perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.

1. I __________ (cook) dinner by the time you get home.

2. In a few minutes, I __________ (wait) here for Craig for over two hours. Wherecan he be?

3. We'll be halfway through the sponsored swim in one hour so we __________ (swim) for forty-eight hours non-stop by then.

4. They __________ (not / finish) painting the house by the time we get backfrom holiday.

5. If she's still on the phone at eight o'clock, __________ (Jan / talk) to Melissa forover two hours.

6. At six o'clock this evening, we __________ (not / climb) for five hours but forseven hoursl

7. This time next month, you __________ (probably / pass) your driving test!

8.  __________ (you / do) all your homework by bedtime?

9. Tomorrow __________ (Elaine / work) on the project for ten days.

10. We __________ (probably / not / leave) by the time you get home.


E Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

1. We'll get home and then we'll have something to eat.                                                       got

We'll have something to eat _____________ home.

2. I'll finish marking the exams and then I'll tell you your results.                                        soon

I'll tell you your results _____________ marking the exams.

3. You'll be travelling across the Sahara next week so remember to wear lots of sunscreen!    while

Remember to wear lots of sunscreen _____________ across theSahara next week!

4. They'll show Titan at the cinema and then they'll release the DVD.                                 before

They won't release the DVD _____________ at the cinema.

5. My science exam starts at ten tomorrow morning.                                                            taking

At ten past ten tomorrow _____________ my science exam.

6. Let's watch the space documentary before we have supper.                                      watched

Let's have supper _____________ the space documentary.

7. I'll send out all the invitations before lunchtime.                                                               have

By lunchtime, _____________ all the invitations.

8. Do some revision and then I 'II give you a test.                                                                until

I won't give you a test _____________   some revision.

9. When you visit us, we'll have moved into our new house.                                                by

We'll have moved into our new house _____________ you visitus.

10. We'll get some more information and then we'll make a decision.                                  once

Let's make a decision _____________ got some moreinformation.


F   Read the information and write a question for each answer given.


Isles of Scilly Day Trip - 22nd July

5.30 am             coach departs from Plymouth Bretonside Bus Station

8.15 am             arrive Penzance

9.15 am             ferry (Scillonian III) departs

12.00 noon        arrive St Mary's

12-1.30 pm        walk round the town

1.30-2.30 pm        picnic lunch (on Garrison overlooking harbour)

2.30-4 pm         swimming pr. boat trip round island

4.30 pm             ferry (Scillonian III) departs

74.15 pm           arrive Penzance

7.30 pm             coach departs

10.15 pm           arrive Plymouth Bretonside Bus Station



What time doesthe coachleave Plymouth?

It leaves at 5.30 am.                                                       1 ____________________

He'll be driving the coach to Penzance.                      2____________________

It'll arrive at 8.15 am.                                                       3____________________

It's going to set sail at 9.15 am.                                  4____________________

It will have been sailing for two hours.                       5____________________

They will just have arrived in St Mary's.                     6____________________

They'll be walking round the town.                               7____________________

They'll be having a picnic lunch.                                 8____________________

They'll be leaving the beach at 4 pm.                               9____________________

They'll have just finished a boat trip round the island.    10____________________

It's leaving at 4.30 pm.                                                     11____________________

They get back at 10.15 pm.                                           12____________________


G   Write on, in or at in each gap.

1. I'll be 100 years old _________ the year 2095!

2. Sasha's not going to have a party _________ her birthday this year.

3. See you _________ August!

4. See you _________ Tuesday!

5. See you _________ eight o'clock!

6. See you _________ the morning!

7. See you _________ a couple of hours!

8. It's difficult to sleep _________ night _________ the summer because of the heat.

9. My grandfather left home _________ the age of fourteen!

10. We got there just _________ time for the movie.

11. He's never late, and he's never early; he always arrives right _________ time.

12. My birthday's _________ April 1st.


H   Each of the words in bold is incorrect. Rewrite them correctly.

1. My Australian cousins are coming in Greece next month! _________

2. Turn left on the post office, then go straight on. _________

3. There weren't any chairs, so we had to sit at the floor. _________

4. The TV's onthe corner of the room. _________

5. There's a photo of the author at the back cover of the book. _________

6. We should arrive at Paris at six in the morning. _________

7. Could you go out from the room for a moment, please? _________

8. Walk in the station, but turn left a couple of blocks before you get there. _________

9. I'll meet you in the corner of your street. _________

10. There should be a broom on the back of the cupboard, somewhere. _________

11. They should arrive in the airport in about an hour. _________

12. The CD should be next from the CD player. _________


I   Write one word in each gap.


Ages, eras and wars will always be defined (1) _________ they are over, or at least well after they

(2) _________ started. (3) _________ the year 1914, for example, no one said: “Tomorrow I'mgoing (4) _________ go and fight in the First World War.” Why not? Because it wasn't generallycalled the First World War until the Second World War had started. Similarly, no one ever said:

“Next year (5) _________ be the start of the Industrial Revolution.” The era now known as theIndustrial Revolution only started being called that once it was well under way.

(6) _________ the time we are old, we will all (7) _________ experienced enormoustechnological advances. We might even (8) _________ walking round with computer chipsimplanted in our bodies, or perhaps computer chip technology will have (9) _________ replacedby even more advanced technology. There's talk (10) _________ the moment that human skinitself might make an excellent electronic circuit board. We can all make predictions, but nobodyknows for sure. And nobody knows what the era we will live (11) _________ the near futurewill be called by future historians. If we already live in the ComputerAge or the Information Age, assome people suggest, the present-day era (12) _________ be referred to by future historians, then who knows what era we're just (13) _________ the beginning of right now?



UNIT 6                                                     VOCABULARY

Science and technology

Topic vocabulary in contrast                                                                see page 187 for definitions

artificial/false aim / cause / reason progress / development
natural / physical estimate/calculate modern / new
true/accurate electric / electronic industry/factory
method / way invent / discover award / reward
engine / machine / motor research / experiment  take place / occur


Phrasal verbs

breakdown stop working (for a machine,etc) giveoff produce sth such as heat or a smell
carryout perform an experiment, etc narrowdown reduce the number of possibilities
comeoff succeed plugin connect to the electricity supply
comeon develop or make progress putthrough connect by phone
comeup with think of (an idea, a plan, etc) turninto change into sth different
cutoff stop the supply of sth turnoff stop a machine working
findout discover information, etc workout find the solution to a problem, etc


Phrases and collocations

attempt make an attempt (at sth/doing / to do); attempt to do; in an attempt to do
average on average
beginning in the beginning; at the beginning (of sth); beginning with
bottom at/on the bottom (of sth)
cause (be/find/look for/etc) the cause of sth
conclusion come to/reach the conclusion (that); in conclusion
experiment do/perform/carry out an experiment (on sth); experiment with sth/doing
fact in fact; as a matter of fact; the fact (of the matter) is (that); face the facts
introduction with the introduction of sth; an introduction to sth/sb
phone call make/receive/get a phone call
photo(graph) take a photo (of sth/sb)
research carry out / do research (on/into sth)


Word patterns

cause sth (to do) look at/for sth/sb; look forward to sth/doing
consider sth/doing; consider if/whether; consider sb for sth; consider it strainge, etc (for sb to do) manage to do
discuss sth/doing (with sb) plan sth; plan to do
explain that; explain sth (to sb) possible (for sb) to do; find sth possible; find it possible to do
intend to do/doing result of sth/doing; result in sth; result in (your) doing; result from sth/doing; as a result of sth
know (aboout) sth/doing; know of sb; be known as sth wonder about sth/doing; wonder if/whether/why


Word formation

appear appearance, apparently introduce introduction, introductory research researcher
build builder, building invent inventor, invention revolution revolutionary
discover discovery observe observer, observation science scientist, (un)scientific(ally)
explain explanation possible impossible, (im)possibility, (im)possibly technology technological(ly,), technical(ly), technician, technique
important (un)important(ly), (un)importance psychology psychologist, psychologcal(ly) wood wooden


Рекомендуемые страницы:

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2019-04-09; Просмотров: 762; Нарушение авторского права страницы

lektsia.com 2007 - 2020 год. Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав! (0.024 с.) Главная | Обратная связь