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CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AT THE DINNER TABLE
In some cultures, when you are invited to (1) ……. a meal at someone's house, you might be considered rude if you don't say how nice the food is. In Britain, for example, it's normal for someone to compliment the cook (2) ……. the tastiness of the meal. You can say something like, That was delicious. Do, please, write the recipe down (3) ……. me!'
In other cultures, however, people tend not (4) ……. be so full (5) ……. Enthusiasm for the meal. You might be regarded (6) ……. being rude, as the cook might associate your praise (7) ……. surprise. He or she might think, 'So, they're shocked I can cook well, are they?'
If you're not sure how to react, the best advice is to wait and (8) ……. how other people at the table react. If that doesn't help, be very careful (9) ……. what you say! I would suggest (10) ……. one solution could be to sa. That was delicious, but then I knew it would be!'
(1 mark per answer)
В Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals when this is necessary.
11. My dad never has sugar in coffee or tea but he does sometimes like to add artificial ……. (SWEET).
12. I don't know how anyone could eat eyeballs. That's ……. (DISGUST)!
13. Jenny stood ……. (ANXIOUS) in the kitchen, hoping that her souffle would rise.
14. Did you know that tomatoes ……. (ORIGIN) from South America?
15. Donald is so ……. (CREATE) in the kitchen. I think he should be a professional chef.
16. There are sandwiches for you in a plastic ……. (CONTAIN) in the fridge.
17. It's important to observe basic health and ……. (SAFE) precautions when you're
handling uncooked meat.
18. That was ……. (THOROUGH) delicious! Thank you!
(1 mark per answer)
С Complete the second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
19. You have to stir the soup every five minutes or so. stirred
The soup ……. every five minutes or so.
20. A baker delivered the cake for us this morning. had
We ……. a baker this morning.
21. Elaine tasted the curry for me to see how hot it was. got
I ……. the curry for me to see how hot it was.
22. Many people say that olive oil is good for the heart. said
Olive oil ……. good for the heart.
23. Some people have said that red wine is good for the heart too. been
It ……. that red wine is good for the heart too.
24. They've been building that new supermarket for months. construction
That new supermarket ……. for months.
25. These cucumbers came from our garden! grown
These cucumbers ……. our garden!
26. Why don't you ask an electrician to fit your cooker? get
Why don't you ……. an electrician?
27. I don't think there's enough salt in the sauce. acking
I think ……. salt.
(2 marks per answer)
D Match to make sentences.
28. I think this milk has gone... A. out a new recipe tomght!
29. I ran В . of bread so could you go and get some?
30. We've run out С . on for dinnertime.
31. Mum's trying D. off so let's throw it away.
32. It must be getting E. out quite how I expected.
33. We'd love you to come F. into Bob in the supermarket yesterday.
34. This lasagne hasn't turned G. round for dinner sometime.
(1 mark per answer)
E Choose the correct answer.
35. There's a pack of ……. vegetables in the freezer, I think.
A freezing С iced
В frozen D icy
36. There are no vegetarian dishes on the …….!
A leaflet С catalogue
В brochure D menu
37. ……. the onions in cooking oil until they're golden brown.
A Boil С Fry
В Bake D Grill
38. Pre-heat the ……. to 200°.
A oven С cuisine
В kitchen D cook
39. I'll ……. the washing-up tonight!
A make С do
В take D have
40. The problem with most fizzy drinks is that they're ……. sugar.
A full up С filled with
В filled up with D full of
41. Susie and Fran ……. in on us last night, so I had to quickly defrost a pizza.
A turned С came
В dropped D went
(1 mark per answer)
Total mark: ….. /50
Unit 17 Grammar
• -ing form or infinitive / prefer, would rather, had better / infinitives of purpose
( verb/noun/adjective phrase + -ing form )
• Some of the verbs, nouns and adjectives in the list above can also be followed by an object
before the -ing form.
✓ I can't stand people cheating in exams.
• When we put a verb after a preposition, we almost always use an -ing form.
✓ I'm interested in hearing more about that course.
( verb/noun/adjective phrase + full infinitive )
• Some verb, noun and adjective phrases are usually followed by the full infinitive.
✓ Your answer appears to be wrong.
|able afford agree appear||arrange ask attempt beg||choose decide encourage expect||fail happen help hope||manage offer plan pleased||prepare pretend promise refuse||seem tend want wish would like|
• Some of the verbs, nouns and adjectives in the list above can also be followed by an object before the full infinitive.
✓ I didn't want to take the exam.
✓ My mum didn't want me to take the exam.
( verb + bare infinitive )
• Some verbs can be followed by an object + the bare infinitive.
✓ You never let me say the answer.
• The verbs feel, hear, notice, see and watch can also be followed by the -ing form.
We often use the bare infinitive for a completed action (from start to finish).
We often use the -ing form for an action in progress at the time.
✓ I heard Miss Jenkins tell Julie not to do that. (= I heard all of it.)
✓ I heard Miss Jenkins telling Julie not to do that. (= I heard part of it.)
• In the passive, hear, make and see are followed by the full infinitive.
✓ Active: The teacher made me stand in the corner.
✓ Passive: I was made to stand in the corner.
( verb + full infinitive or -fng form with little or no change in meaning )
• Some verbs can be followed by the full infinitive or the -ing form with little or no change in meaning.
✓ We continued to do experiments in the lab all afternoon.
✓ We continued doing experiments in the lab all afternoon.
( verb + full infinitive or -fng form with a change in meaning )
•Some verbs can be followed by both the full infinitive and the -ing form. The choice depends on the meaning.
✓ I remember teachers at my school hitting children when they were naughty!
✓ Did you remember to do your homework?
These verbs include:
|consider forget||go on imagine||learn like||mean regret||remember stop||teach try|
• See page 196 in the Reference Section for a full list of verbs and definitions.
( prefer, would rather, had better )
|prefer + noun /-ing + to+ noun /-ing||expressing general preference||I prefer biology to history. I prefer reading English texts to speaking in English.|
|would prefer + full infinitive + rather than (+ bare/full infinitive)||expressing specific preference (on this occasion)||I'd prefer to have the lesson on Wednesday rather than ([to] have it) on Tuesday, if that's possible.|
|would rather + bare infinitive + than (+ bare infinitive)||expressing general or specific preference||I'd rather have the lesson on Wednesday than (have it) on Tuesday, if that's possible.|
|would rather + sb + past simple/ past continuous||expressing general or specific preference (about someone else)||I'd rather you didn't sit next to Brian.|
|had better + bare infinitive||giving advice||You'd better ask your parents if you can come on the school trip.|
• We don't usual ly say I don't prefer….. We use I prefer not to.....
✓ I prefer not to have music on when I'm studying.
( infinitives of purpose )
|• When we want to talk about someone's purpose (the reason they do something), we can use: the full infinitive I went to university to avoid getting a job! in order + ful I infinitive I went to university in order to avoid getting a job! so as + full infinitive I went to university so as to avoid getting a job!|
| WATCH OUT
• We can also express the same idea using so (that).
✓ I went to university so (that) I could avoid getting a job!
• With a negative purpose we don't normally use the full infinitive on its own.
✓ I wen t to university in order not to get a job!
✓ I wen t to university so as not to get a job!
A Circle the correct word or phrase.
1. I really don't feel like going / to go out tonight. Do you?
2. Everyone expected his business failing / to fail within the first few months.
3. What would you like doing / to do this evening?
4. We discussed turning / to turn the attic into a spare bedroom with the architect.
5. She wasn't able speaking / to speak very clearly after her accident.
6. Do you mind moving / to move your car, please? You're blocking the road.
7. They're going to postpone making / to make a decision until next month.
8. Are you planning of getting / to get a new DVD player?
9. Are you thinking of getting / to get a PlayStation?
10. I'm very pleased telling / to tell you that you've passed!
11. Sarah's offered putting / to put us up for the weekend.
12. I'm really looking forward to going / to go on the cruise.
В Complete using the correct form (-ing form or full infinitive) of the verb in brackets. You may need to use the passive voice.
1. I'll never forgive June for lying (lie) to me like that.
2. Daniel's not very good at ……. (make) friends.
3. I can't resist ……. (buy) things when they're in the sales.
4. We've got to encourage students ……. (study), not blame them for not studying.
5. I don't know how you managed ....... (persuade) the bank manager to lend you so much money!
6. Does Jessica dislike ……. (walk) so much that she's not going to come with us?
7. Do you deny ……. (steal) the money? Yes or no?
8. The kids were pretending ……. (be) asleep but they didn't fool me for a second.
9. I refuse ……. (accept) that there's no alternative.
10. No one understands how Jill can afford ……. (go) on so many holidays each year.
11 He only just escaped ……. (send) to prison. Next time, the judge won't be so forgiving.
12 He expected ……. (give) a brand new computer for Christmas, but all he got was a second-hand watch!
С Read the text in Exercise D and decide whether each gap should be filled with the -ingform, a bare infinitive or a full infinitive. Write -ing, BI or FI for each gap.
|1…… 2…… 3……. 4……. 5……. 6…….||7……. 8……. 9……. 10……. 11……. 12…….||13……. 14……. 15……. 16……. 17…….|
D Complete using the correct form (-ingform, bare infinitive or full infinitive) of the verbs in the box. Use each verb only once.
|achieve • be • behave • come • do • hope • improve • learn • listen make • play • sit down • take • tell • try • use • work|
Report: William Watson
William Watson sometimes seems to be afraid of (1) working hard. He can't help (2) ……. to avoid (3) ……. anything that involves (4) ……. his brain, particularly on Friday afternoons. He seems to detest (5) ……. life seriously, and pretends he isn't capable of (6) ……. anything of worth. This is unfortunate as, with a little more effort, William could succeed in (7) ……. great progress.
However, at present he frequently just wants (8) ……. the fool. He enjoys (9) ……. jokes. Presumably, he imagines this (10) ……. The best way to make friends, but in fact he often just ends up preventing the other students from (11) ……. . He has promised on several occasions (12) ……. his behaviour in class, but then he just keeps on (13) ……. in exactly the same way. Recently, I have had to beg him (14) ....... and be quiet in the classroom, but it's difficult to know how to make him (15) ……. to his senses. He just doesn't seem interested in (16) ……. to my opinion. I'm tempted to give up even (17) ……. that he might, improve. Having said that though, Mr Watson is an extremely good maths teacher!
Julie Cross - 5A
E For each pair of sentences, put a tick (✓) if both sentences mean the same thing. Put a cross (X) if they have different meanings.
1 a I can't bear being tickled!
b I can't bear to be tickled!
2 a My boss went on saying that he was very proud of all of us.
b My boss went on to say that he was very proud of all of us.
3 a Have you stopped having lunch yet?
b Have you stopped to have lunch yet?
4 a Have you started having lunch yet?
b Have you started to have lunch yet?
5 a They continued climbing the mountain
b They continued to dimb the mountain.
6 a We all saw the reporter interviewing the witness.
b We all saw the reporter interview the witness.
7 a I love playing practical jokes on my younger brother.
b I love to play practical jokes on my younger brother.
8 a Why don't you try holding your breath for a minute or two?
b Why don't you try to hold your breath for a minute or two?
9 a I hate being cheated by taxi drivers.
b I hate to be cheated by taxi drivers.
F Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
1. I should have taken my medicine this morning but I didn't remember. forgot
I forgot to take my medicine this morning.
2. I'll always remember the time when I went up Mont Blanc. never
I'll ……. Mont Blanc.
3. I must hang up the washing later. remember
I ……. up the washing later.
4. Darren thinks that wearing a suit to work is appropriate. likes
Darren ……. a suit to work.
5. Jackie wishes she hadn't said that to Allie. regrets
Jackie ……. that to Allie.
6. I'm sorry but your credit card has been cancelled by the bank. regret
I ……. your credit card has been cancelled by the bank.
7. Crashing the car wasn't my intention, you know! mean
I ……. the car, you know!
8. If I take that job, I'll have to do a lot more travelling. mean
Taking that job to do a lot more travelling.
9. Jim's mum made him tidy his room before he could go and play in the park. made
Jim ……. his room before he could go and play in the park.
10. I don't suppose you watched that film last night on BBC2, did you? happen
You ……. that film last night on BBC2, did you?
11. People often think that learning Latin is a waste of time. considered
Learning Latin ……. a waste of time.
G Each of the words or phrases in bold is incorrect. Rewrite them correctly.
1. I generally prefer coffee from tea. ________
2. Do you prefer watching a DVD at home to go to the cinema? ________
3. I had prefer to meet you a bit later, if that's all right with you. ________
4. He'd prefer not have to get up so early tomorrow, but he will if he has to. ________
5. I'd rather you write your essay in a notebook, to be honest. ________
6. Would you prefer to get a pizza rather from go out tonight? ________
7. You would better see a doctor if you're not feeling well. ________
8. I had rather be poor and happy than rich and lonely. ________
9. I'd prefer having an early night tonight, if that's okay with you. ________
10. She'd rather start revising if she wants to do well in the exam next week. ________
11. Shona prefers to not wear make-up to work. ________
H Write one word in each gap.
1. I prefer pop music to rock, to be honest.
2. I would prefer to go to the concert tomorrow ……. than on Saturday.
3. I ……. playing the piano on my own to performing.
4. I'd rather ……. to that jazz club than a nightclub.
5. I'd ……. you didn't practise playing the trumpet while I'm trying to study.
6. You'd ……. get tickets soon as they're running out.
7. We queued up early in ……. to get good seats.
8. We waited for hours so ……. not to miss the VIPs arriving.
9. I called the theatre ……. find out what time the concert started.
10. I actually prefer ……. to listen to music through speakers; it sounds so much better through headphones.
11. Don't you think we ……. better turn the music down a bit?
I Choose the correct answer.
Approaches to learning
People appear (1) ……. in different ways. Some people expect (2) ……. mistakes in their studies and are capable of (3) ……. from their mistakes.They don't mind (4) ……. by their teacher and indeed often ask (5) ……. corrected.
Others, however, dislike (6) …….. mistakes.They try to avoid (7) ……. anything which they might do badly.They would rather (8) ……. something in small steps and be sure they have got it right (9) ……. attempt to do a task based on a subject they don't feel they have finished (10) ……. yet.
Both ways of learning seem (11) ……. equally valid, but a combination of the two may be the best solution. In (12) ……. to learn effectively, students have to remember (13) ……. risks sometimes.
But they also have to feel comfortable and secure with what they're doing so (14) ……. not to become demotivated. All students should at least think about (15) ……. the way that they approach learning.
1. A. learning В . to learn С. learn D. having learnt
2. A. making В. to make С. make D. having made
3. A. benefiting В. to benefit С. benefit D. to have benefited
4. A. correcting В. being corrected С. to correct D. to be corrected
5. A. being В. be С. to have been D. to be
6. A. making В. to make С. to be making D. make
7. A. doing В. to do С. having done D. to have done
8. A. to perfect В. perfecting С. perfect D. be perfected
9. A. to В. from С. that D. than
10. A. explore В. to explore С. exploring D. being explored
11. A. that В. to be С. as D. being
12. A. desire В. demand С. need D. order
13. A. to take В. taking С. to have taken D. having taken
14. A. that В. much С. as D. many
15. A. to question В. questioning С. question D. to be questioned
Unit 18 Vocabulary
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