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Topic vocabulary in contrast
A Circle the correct word.
1. My grandfather made a wealth / fortune by investing at the right time.
2. I think you'll find that the Microcar is really very economic / economical to drive.
3. I'm afraid we can only accept the return of the item if you still have the receipt / bill.
4. If you show this coupon at the checkout / discount, you'll receive a free gift.
5. I'm not keen on Justin Timberlake so I'll try to refund / exchange this CD for one by Blue.
6. The assistant called the manager when the note I gave her turned out to be plastic / fake.
7. This unbeatable special offer / bill is only available until the end of the week, so hurry!
8. Excuse me, but I don't suppose you have make / change for a fifty, do you?
9. I went back to the shop a week later, and the price / cash had gone up by 50%!
В Complete the crossword.
3. Nine out of ten shoppers who tried our washing powder preferred it to any other leading ….. (5)
6. If the.... situation continues to worsen, the government may have to take steps. (8)
7. You only paid ?30 for such a gorgeous hat? That's a real….. ! (7)
9. Businesses are complaining that the..... of labour is rising. (4)
10. This is a robbery! Put all the money from the..... in this sack. Now! (4)
11. I need to find a bank because I didn't bring enough..... out with me. (4)
12. Come to Barons summer..... ! Everything is down 30%! (4)
1. If you buy an extra battery at the same time as the digital camera, we can offer you a ..... of 10%. (8)
2. Our supermarket stocks over a thousand household ..... at low, low prices! (8)
4. When I checked the ...... on my way out of the supermarket, I noticed that I had paid twice for the fruit. (7)
5. If you take something back to the shop, you might get a ...... or be offered another item instead. (6)
7. Waiter! Do you think you could bring us the ...... , please? (4)
8. There's very little heavy industry in my country, so we import a lot of ….. from abroad. (5)
С Complete using the correct form of the phrasal verbs in the box.
look round • come by • make out • put by • get through • bank on • giveaway
1. Of course I'll pay you back next week. You can bank on it.
2. Would you please ……. the cheque to Mr P. Edwards?
3. I try to ……. a little money each year to spend on a nice holiday.
4. We ……. a lot of butter in our family every week.
5. Do you fancy coming into town on Saturday to ……. the shops?
6. The robber couldn't explain how he ……. such a large amount of moneywhen the police caught him.
7. Did you hear about the millionaire who ……. his entire fortune to charity?
D Write one word in each gap.
A LUCKY FIND
When I was young, we always had to do (1) without a lot of things that other kids had. We lived (2) ….. my dad's wage, which wasn't much, but we managed to get (3) …... . If we needed anything, we would (4) ….. up for it, but there was never very much for luxuries.
Then, one day, I was helping my mum clean out my great-aunt's attic after she died when we came (5) ….. my great-aunt's will! In it, she had left all her money to my mum, and my great-aunt had been very rich! We had suddenly come (6) ….. a fortune!
Life changed after that, I can tell you. We bought a new house and a new car and went on a great holiday to (7) ….. up for all the times we hadn't been able to afford it.
They say money isn't everything, but having money is a lot more fun than not having it!
Phrases and collocations
E Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
1. I suggest not spending all your money now so that you'll have some later. for
What about saving some money for/putting some mone for later?
2. Did your mum gain any money when she sold her business? profit
Did you mum ……. when she sold her business?
3. Not many people want this type of bank account. demand
There is ……. this type of bank account.
4. I didn't want to owe Sue money, so I didn't borrow any. debt
I didn't want Sue, so I didn't borrow any money.
5. You must have paid a lot of money for such a nice engagement ring, Jim! fortune
A nice engagement ring like that must ……. Jim!
6. Inflation has gone up by 3% this year. increase
There has been an ……. 3% this year.
7. You won't have any money if you keep buying CDs. it
You won't have any money if you keep ……. CDs.
8. Don't spend money on hiring a limousine at the airport. expense
Don't go ……. hiring a limousine at the airport.
9. I had to pay £50 for breaking the vase in the shop! charged
They ……. £50 for breaking the vase in the shop!
10. A lot of money was stolen from the bank in the robbery. amount
The bank lost ……. in the robbery.
11. I can't afford a holiday this year. enough
I don't have ……. on holiday this year.
12. I succeeded through hard work, clever decisions and, finally but importantly, luck. least
I succeeded through hard work, clever decisions and ….. luck.
13. The shoplifter took a packet of crisps without the shopkeeper seeing. notice
The shopkeeper didn't ……. a packet of crisps.
14. I'll go and buy what we need and you start cooking. shopping
I'll go and ……. and you start cooking.
F Match to make sentences.
1. I can't believe they charged me A. about the economy.
2. The old lady begged me В. that I pay back my loan immediately.
3. I'll never forget С. learning that I had the winning ticket.
4. My dad and my uncle always argue D. to the girl at the desk and left.
5. I was shocked when the bank demanded E. for using the hotel pool.
6. We really can't afford F. to buy a new fridge.
7. Debra paid the money G. to give her some money.
G Write one word in each gap.
Europe is heading for a financial crisis, or so some analysts believe. Although we are spending more money (1) on luxury items and recreation than ever before, it is often money we have borrowed (2) ……. .a bank. Banks are willing to lend more and more money (3) ……. us because they profit (4) ……. it by charging us interest.
We are spending money that doesn't really belong (5) ……. us, and few of us save much (6) …… our old age.
H Each of the words in bold is in the wrong form. Rewrite them correctly.
1. I'd really like to study economy at university. ecomomics
2. Making lots of money from gambling is a great dream, but the real is that most people lose everything. …….
3. One of the biggest problems in the developing world is poor. …….
4. The actress was very expense dressed in an outfit. …….
5. That current affairs programme was so boring - it seemed end. …….
6. You can make your pay at any of over 2000 cash machines around the country. …….
7. The bank manager offered us some financial assist just when we needed it. …….
8. All employees receive a day allowance to cover the cost of meals. …….
9. The company is doing much better finance this year than last. …….
10. There are many problems connected to being extremely wealth. …….
11. I told the manager I thought the increase in prices was totally accept. …….
12. I thought the painting was worth a lot of money, but it turned out to be completely value. …….
13. I'd like to be able to afford the little luxury that make life enjoyable . …….
Units 21 and 22 Review
A Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.
Although too many people in the West do still live in (1) …… , on POOR
the whole, Westerners are far more (2) …… than those who live in WEALTH
developing countries. Things that are essential to our (3) …… lives, DAY
and which we take for granted, such as electricity, are (4) ...... to LUXURY
millions of people around the world. Is this situation (5) …… or ACCEPT
should the West be giving more (6) ……. to developing countries? ASSIST
Some politicians and (7) ……. believe that Western financial ECONOMY
(8) …… in developing countries would be in everyone's interest. INVEST
As those countries get richer, they will become (9) ……. trading VALUE
partners with the West. The (10) ……. is, however, that there is REAL
an enormous amount of work to be done before people in developing
countries can enjoy the kind of lives that most people lead in the West.
(1 mark per answer)
В Match to make sentences.
11. Sharon came A. a little money by each month.
12. I manage to put В. out the cheque to Peardrop Limited, that
13. You can bank would be fine.
14. I don't know how they can get С. up to buy a new DVD player.
15. If you could make D. into some money when her aunt died.
16. The shop's giving E. away free software with every computer.
17. I'm saving F. by on such a low salary.
18. I don't know what we're going to G. on now I've lost my job.
H. on house prices coming down soon.
(1 mark per answer)
C Complete the second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words.
19. I had to pay to park in the supermarket car park! charged
I ……. parking in the supermarket car park!
20. Is this credit card yours? belong
Does ……. you?
21. I haven't got much money in the bank. amount
I've only got ……. money in the bank.
22. Getting the car repaired was so expensive! fortune
It ……. to get the car repaired!
23. Sophie demanded that the shop assistant apologise to her. apology
Sophie demanded ……. the shop assistant.
24. Buying things online means I don't have to go into town so often. saves
Buying things online ……. to go into town so often.
25. Don't pay attention to what Dan says; your new shoes are lovely! notice
Take …… what Dan says; your new shoes are lovely!
26. I haven't got much cash at the moment. short
I ……. cash at the moment.
27. Can you lend me some money? borrow
Can ……. you?
(2 marks per answer)
D Choose the correct answer.
28. The shop assistant finally agreed …… a full refund.
A. giving me В. to give me
С. give to me D. to me to give
29. Bill asked me why …… to go shopping with me.
A. I hadn't invited him В. hadn't I invited him
С. I hadn't him invited D. hadn't I him invited
30. Ellie asked Stan ……. to look at the new catalogue.
A. did he want В. do you want
С. whether he wants D. if he wanted
31. Stephen ……. me he'd bought that suit in a sale.
A. said В. spoke
С. told D. claimed
32. 'What did the man say when you challenged him?'
'He said he ……. pay for the things in his bag, but I didn't believe him!'
A. is going to В. has been going to
С. goes to D. was going to
33. When I last saw Carrie, she told me she …… of buying a house, but now she's changed her mind.
A. thought В. is thinking
С. was thinking D. has been thinking
34. 'What did they say when they realised you weren't a shoplifter?'
'They apologized ……. me.'
A. to doubt В. they had doubted
С. for doubting D. the doubt of
(1 mark per answer)
E Choose the correct answer.
35. This car is very …… as it goes so far on one tank of petrol.
A. financial В. economical С. costly D. endless
36. I can't believe how cheap these shorts were. They were a real …….!
A. bargain В. Sale С. discount D. offer
37. What …… of car does your mum drive?
A. name В. brand С. make D. form
38. Could you tell me who's in ……. here, please?
A. charge С. rule
В. Responsibility D. organisation
39. I paid the assistant and took the books but then stupidly left the bookshop without waiting for my ……. .
A. cash В. fee С. refund D. change
40. I think she …… her fortune in the shipping industry.
A. took В. made С. won D. saved
41. I didn't find a new top but at ……. I got some new jeans.
A. less В. the less С. Least D. the least
(1 mark per answer)
Unit 23 Grammar
• Relative clauses / Participles
( Relative clauses )
• When the relative pronoun (who, which, etc) is the subject of the relative clause, you do not need another subject.
✓ I admire Jude Law, who always works hard on his films.
• Whom is quite formal. It is natural in informal English to use who instead of whom, even when it is the object of the relative clause. After a preposition, however, we always use whom. Informally, we usually put the preposition at the end of the clause and use who.
✓ Is that the man who we saw at the cinema yesterday?
✓ Charlie Chaplin was a comic genius to whom all comedians owe a great deal.
✓ Charlie Chaplin was a comic genius who all comedians owe a great deal to.
• Where can be replaced by a preposition + which. Less formally, we can put the preposition at the end of the clause.
✓ The theatre where/in which I first acted is somewhere around here.
✓ The theatre which I first acted in is somewhere around here.
• We can do the same thing with when.
✓ Do you know the year when / in which the first western was made?
✓ Do you know the year which the first western was made in?
( Non-defining relative clauses )
• Non-defining relative clauses simply give us more information about something/someone. The sentence makes complete sense without the relative clause.
|To give extra information about something/someone||Ray Watson, who starred in Bandits, is considering making a film based on the life of Einstein.|
• Non-defining relative clauses are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
✓ Megamonsters, which was filmed in New York, is a very disappointing film.
• We cannot leave out the word which introduces the relative clause and we cannot use the word that instead.
• Which can refer back to the whole of the sentence.
✓ We finally got tickets for the concert, which was very lucky.
(It doesn't mean the concert was lucky. It means getting tickets for the concert was lucky.)
( Defining relative clauses )
• Defining relative clauses tell us which one of a group of things/people we are talking about. The sentence doesn't usually make complete sense without the relative clause.
|To tell us which one of a group of things/people we are talking about||The book which I've read was the best of all. The one who is wearing a blue shirt is Justin Timberlake, isn't it?|
• Defining relative clauses are not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
✓ This is the DVD which I told you about the other day.
• We can also use that to introduce the relative clause.
✓ This is the DVD that I told you about the other day.
• We can often leave out the word which introduces the relative clause when it is the object of the clause.
✓ This is the DVD I told you about the other day.
• Notice that we do not need a preposition when we use where or when.
✓ The theatre where I first acted is somewhere around here.
✓ Do you know the year when the first western was made?
• Present participles end in -ing.
Past participles usually end in -ed, although there are many irregular verbs.
Perfect participles are formed using having + past participle.
|To follow prepositions and conjunctions (present and perfect participles)||By appearing in that cigarette advert, he damaged his acting career. After playing / having played video games all morning, I was really tired.|
|To explain the reason for something (present and perfect participles)||Being quite good looking, Ralph decided to make a career as a model. Having seen the film before, I knew what was going to happen.|
|To talk about actions happening at the same time (present participles)||Waiting for the show to begin, I felt really nervous.|
|To replace some relative clauses (present and past participles)||Imagine being the person directing a big budget film! (= Imagine being the person who is directing a big budget film!) The person chosen for the part will be contacted by phone. (= The person who is chosen for the part will be contacted by phone.)|
|To talk about past actions happening in sequence (perfect participles)||Having finished my homework, I decided to go to the cinema.|
|As an alternative passive form (past participles)||Made to wait, the actor began to get very annoyed.|
• You have to be careful that the participle and the rest of the sentence both refer to the same subject.
✓ Watching TV, I saw a news report about Hollywood.
A Circle the correct word.
1. The minister, which / who was appointed just last week, made no comment on the situation.
2. Isn't that the spot which / where the accident happened last night?
3. The human brain, which / who weighs about 1400 grammes, is ten times the size of a baboon's.
4. There are several reasons which / why I don't want to see Michael tonight.
5. This is the office which / where I work.
6. The new girl in our class, who's / whose name is Alexandra, seems really nice.
7. The Titanic, which / that people said was unsinkable / sank on her maiden voyage.
8. All the people to who / whom the e-mail was sent replied.
9. April 1st, which / when we play tricks on people, is known as April Fools' Day.
10. Harry Hill, who / whose new series starts next week, is one of my favourite comedians.
11. A very popular breed of dog is the German Shepherd, which / who is often used as a guard dog.
12. Blackpool Tower, which / that was modelled on the Eiffel Tower, is a very well-known landmark.
В If a word in bold is correct, put a tick (✓). If it is incorrect, rewrite it correctly.
1. November 5th was the day which Guy Fawkes tried to blow up Parliament. when
2. There were none of my favourite biscuits left when I had a cup of tea, that was really annoying.____
3. I've just got a new webcam that takes really clear pictures. _____
4. The Godfather was made by Francis Ford Copolla, who's daughter is also a film director.
5. Can you think of any reason which Cathy should be angry with me? _____
6. Here's a photo of the hotel where we stayed in when we were in Beijing. _____
7. How do you think the first man whom walked on the moon felt? ._____
8. This is the first occasion on which the leaders of these two countries have met. _____
9. He is a person for who very few people feel much sympathy. _____
10. The moment which the hero suddenly appears from behind a tree is the best moment in the whole film. _____
11. I met a man which had a dog with only three legs. _____
12. My new school, who I moved to about a month ago, seems like quite a friendly place. _____
С Rewrite as. one sentence using a relative clause.
1. My friend, Simon, plays the guitar. He has just released a CD.
My friend, Simon, who has just released a CD, plays the guitar.
2. Prince Charles is heir to the throne of England. His wife was Princess Diana.
3. Microsoft has a lot of power in the world of computers. That annoys some people.
4. The euro replaced a number of national currencies. It was introduced in January 2002.
5. Friends ran for ten years. It is one of my favourite series.
6. Venus is a very hot place. It is much closer to the Sun than the Earth is.
7. Cricket is popular in many countries around the world. It is played between two teams of eleven.
8. Parts of Buckingham Palace are open to the public. It is where the queen lives.
9. The greyhound is the fastest dog. It can reach speeds of over 65 kilometres an hour.
10. 1984 was written by George Orwell. His real name was Eric Blair.
D Write one word in each gap. Do not write that and do not leave any gaps blank.
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