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In spite of there (1) ……. some truth in the expression 'Never judge a book by its cover', which reminds us that appearances can be deceptive, there (2) ……. to be far more truth in the expression 'You never get a second chance to make a first impression'. There are plenty (3) ……. examples of people who have insisted (4) ……. expressing their individuality through their clothing and have suffered for it.

If you are going to wear outrageous clothes, you've got to be prepared (5) ……. the reaction of others. That reaction may not be positive. You may be stared (6) ……. , criticized (7) ……. wearing something unusual, or even insulted. On the other hand, you may be complimented (8) ……. your style. Location and situation are very important. At a job interview, for (9) ……. , you should probably be more anxious (10) ……. please your potential employers than interested in showing off the latest fashions.

(1 mark per answer)

В  Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals when this is necessary.

11. Tracy works as a ……. (STYLE) for a large modelling agency.

12. There's a ……. (SIMILAR) between the fashions of the 1980s and the 1960s.

13. I think you should lower your ……. (EXPECT) a little; it's not easy to become a supermodel, you know.

14. Let me know when you make a ……. (DECIDE) about what to wear for the wedding.

15. Fashion critics have greeted the new clothing line with ……. (ENTHUSE).

16. The factory has increased ……. (PRODUCE) of its shoes in an attempt to keep up with demand.

17. That necklace is ……. (BEAUTY)!

18. All our clothes are designed for men and women ……. (LIKE).

(1 mark per answer)


С   Complete the second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words.

19. You should get some new sunglasses.                                                                      about

It ……. some new sunglasses.

20. I hate it when you wear that silly tie!                                                                       wish

I ……. wear that silly tie!

21. Janice regrets wearing such formal clothes to the party.                                          had

Janice ……. such formal clothes to the party.

22. I bought the suit although it was second-hand.                                                        despite

I bought the suit ……. second-hand.

23. It's a shame I can't make it to the sales this weekend!                                             only

If ……. make it to the sales this weekend!

24. In spite of my begging her for hours, Carol refused to lend me her new jacket.     though

Carol refused to lend me her new jacket ……. for hours.

25. I don't want you to buy exactly the same trainers as I've got.                                 rather

I ……. buy exactly the same trainers as I've got.

26. I can't go to the party as I don't have anything to wear!                                                      something

I'd go to the party ……. to wear!

27. Despite being a grandmother, Edna still tries to dress fashionably.                         fact

In spite ……. is a grandmother, Edna still tries to dress fashionably.

(2 marks per answer)


D   Match to make sentences.

28. I'm just going to pop 29. I've grown 30. I'd like to try 31. I never thought that skirts for men would catch 32. We all lined 33. I'd take 34. Let's all dress A. on that jacket you've got hanging in the window. B. off my shoes but I think my feet smell! C. into that new boutique for a few minutes. D. up and they took our measurements. E. up for the Halloween party! F. out of these shoes so my mum's going to get me some new ones. G. on, but they have!

(1 mark per answer)


E   Choose the correct answer.

35. Could you wipe the table with a damp ……., please?

A clothe            В clothing              С cloth                   D clothes

36. I've decided to ……. my hair green for the party!

A dye                В paint                              С sketch     D draw

37. That top doesn't ……. me; it's just not my style.

A fit                    В suit                     С match     D go with

38. That's the most incredible ……. of art I've ever seen!

A job                    В creation              С brand      D work

39. Jeans and T-shirts will never go out of ……. .

A trend             В image            С fashion   D tendency

40. I need a funny ……. for the fancy-dress party. Any ideas?

A dress             В uniform              С suit        D costume

41. Tim forgot to use clothes ……. and all his clean clothes fell off the line into the mud!

A pegs                   В clips               С hooks     D pins

(1 mark per answer)

Total mark: …/ 50

Unit 27     Grammar

• Inversions / possessives

( Inversions with negative adverbial words and phrases )

• When we put some negative adverbial words and phrases at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis, the subject and the verb 'invert'. This means we use the question form of the verb, even though the sentence is not a question. Inversions are quite formal and are not usually used in conversation.

Form                negative adverbial word/phrase + question form

                       No sooner had I accepted the job than they told me I had to work weekends.

Negative adverbial Example
Never Never have I worked so hard in all my life.
Rarely Rarely have I worked so hard in all my life.
Seldom Seldom have I worked so hard in all my life.
No sooner (...than) No sooner had Matt started work than he resigned.
Hardly (...when) Hardly had Matt started work when he resigned.
Not only (... but also/too) Not only were you late for work, but you had also forgotten the report.
Under no circumstances Under no circumstances are employees allowed to leave the building without permission.
At no time/point At no time/point was I told what the job involved.
Little Little did I realise that I would become managing director just two years later.
Not until Not until the next day did I hear that I had got the job.
Only Only at the end of the interview did I think I had a chance of getting the job.


• Little is used with verbs of thought (realise, know, suspect, etc) and means 'I did not realise/etc at all...'.

✓ Little did I know how things were going to turn out.

(= I did not know at all how things were going to turn out.)

• With not until and only, you have to be careful about which verb to invert.

✓ Not until I had finished my homework was I allowed to go out.

X Not until had I finished my homework I was allowed to go out.

✓ Only when I had finished my homework was I allowed to go out.

X Only when had I finished my homework I was allowed to go out.


 ( Other inversions )

Use Example
In short answers and other similar structures using so, neither and nor 'I'm a plumber.' 'Really? So am I!' My sister doesn't like getting ready for work, and neither do I/nor do I.
After as, so and such The manager was nervous about the director's visit, as were the rest of the staff. So late was it that there was no one in the office Such a hot day was it that no one wanted to work.
In conditional sentences Were our staff better trained, we might make a larger profit. (= If our staff were better trained...) Had I known about the vacancy, I would have applied. (= If I had known...)


• Remember that 'So am/do/have' is used to agree with a positive statement and 'Neither/Nor am/do/have I' is used to agree with a negative statement.

'I really like my job.' 'So do I.'

'I really don't like my job.' 'Neither do I / Nor do I.'


( Possessive ’s and s’ )

• We can show possession by using's and s'.

Use Example
We use 's with singular nouns, including names, and with irregular plurals which do not end in -s. That's the manager's car, over there. We are still waiting for Sarah's decision about who to take on. I think that women's rights should be protected by law.
We just add an apostrophe to regular plural nouns ending in -s. The workers' pay was increased by ten percent.
We use 's or s' in some time expressions. After an hour's wait, I finally got to see the manager. I'll be at the factory in about ten minutes' time.
We usually use 's or s' with people (or groups composed of people) and animals. For other things, we normally use of/the/my/etc. Is this John's briefcase? We held a meeting to discuss the company's finances. The vet had a close look at the cat's paw. The technician had a close look at the back of my computer. (not ...at my computer's back)


• With singular names ending in -s, some people use 's and some people just add an apostrophe. They are both correct, although using 's is more common.

The report is on Charles's computer in the office.

The report is on Charles' computer in the office.

• With plural names ending in -s, we just add an apostrophe, as with other plurals.

The Smiths' business eventually closed down.

• With phrases, the possessive 's and s' must go at the end of the whole phrase.

Tom, Dick and Harry's office is around here somewhere.

X Tom's, Dick's and Harry's office is around here somewhere.

The President of France's visit to England will be good for business.

X The President's of France visit to England will be good for business.

( Possessive determiners and pronouns )

Structure Example
Possessive determiners (my, your, his, her, its, our, their) come before a noun and show possession I'm really excited about my new job. Are you looking forward to meeting your new boss?
Possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs) are used instead of a noun My new job is great. How about yours? (= ...your job) Our business is doing quite well, but I hear Simon and Julie are having problems with theirs. (= ...their business)
Possessive pronouns can also be used after of to show possession She's a colleague of mine. (= ...one of my colleagues) Are they customers of yours?


• A common mistake to be avoided is using a possessive pronoun instead of a possessive determiner or using a determiner instead of a pronoun.

I don't really get on so well with my boss.

X I don't really get on so well with mine boss.

I know your job is dangerous, but did Frank and Jenny tell you about theirs?

X I know your job is dangerous, but did Frank and Jenny tell you about their?

• Remember that there are no apostrophes in possessive pronouns.

X I know your job is dangerous, but did Frank and Jenny tell you about their's?

• Don't get confused between its (possessive determiner, without an apostrophe) and it's (contraction for it is or it has, with an apostrophe).

Our company is hoping to increase its share of the market.

X Our company is hoping to increase it's share of the market.


A   Write when or than in each gap.

1. Hardly had we started    when   the fire alarm went.

2. No sooner had we set off ……. my brother needed the toilet.

3. No sooner were the animals caught ……. they escaped again.

4. Hardly had I closed my eyes ……. I dropped off to sleep.

5. No sooner do I do the washing ……. there's another pile to be done.

6. Hardly were we in position ……. the bomb went off.


В   Choose the correct answer.

1. No sooner ……. down than the phone rang.

A I had sat        В do I sit               С had I sat        D was I sitting

2. Never ……. a greater day in the history of mankind.

A did there be       В was there           С there was        D there has been

3. At no time ……. that he was the killer.

A I didn't suspect  В was I suspect     С I had suspected D did I suspect

4. Little ……. that I knew his secret.

A did John know  В John did know   С was John know  D John knew

5. Not until ……. her did I realise how beautiful she was.

A I saw             В did I see             С was I saw        D saw I

6. Not only ……. my keys, I've lost my wallet, too.

A I have lost        В are I lost             С I did lose        D have I lost

7. Rarely ……. about the environment enough to give up their car.

A do people care   В people care         С are people care   D care people

8. Only when may vehicles cross the train tracks.

A is the green light on                  В the green light is on

С did the green light be on           D on is the green light

9. Seldom …….such a rude person!

A have I met        В I have met          С did I met        D am I meeting

10. Only after doing his chores    to go to meet his friends.

A Jason was allowed                    В did Jason allow

С was allowed Jason                    D was Jason allowed


С  If a word or phrase in bold is correct, put a tick ( ). If it is incorrect, rewrite it correctly.

1. Hardly Tom had opened the door when the dog ran out into the street. had Tom opened

2. Only when I read the book did I realise why it was so special.   

3. Not only you passed the exam, but you also got an A! …….

4. Not until do I see Greg next week will I know whether he got the job. …….

5. No sooner had we found our seats than the film began. …….

6. At no point while the race is taking place members of the public are not allowed onto the track. …

7. Under no circumstances do the equipment to be used without supervision. …….

8. 8 Little I thought that one day my best friend would become prime minister. …….

9. Never did I be so pleased to see someone else succeed. …….

10. Hardly I had put the baby to bed when she started crying. …….


D   Complete using the correct form of the words in brackets.


No sooner (1) had I started (I / start) working at Taylforth Nielsen, the computer company, than I realised it was the perfect opportunity for my hobby: hacking! Don't get me wrong. At no point (2) ……. (I / have) ever stolen anything. I do it for the challenge. Not only (3) ……. (I / like) proving I can do it, but sometimes (4) ……. (it / help) a company to build a better security system. Rarely (5) ……. (they / see) it like that, of course. I decided I would see if I could break into the Grand Bank system. Little (6) ……. (I / realise) what was waiting for me.

The second day of working there, hardly (7) ……. (everyone else / leave) when I started to try simple passwords. Seldom (8) ……. (this / is) enough, though. You usually have to work much harder than that. Not until midnight (9) ……. (I / get) access to the Grand Bank system. Hardly (10) ……. (I / have) time to look around the system when the door to my office flew open and three men rushed in. Only when (11) ……. (they / show) me their ID (12) ……. (I / realise) that it was the police.

They had been expecting something like this and had traced my computer! Not only (13) ……. (I / be fired), but (14) ……. (they / keep) all my computer records, too. Maybe it's time to find another hobby.


E   Complete the sentences so that the meaning remains the same.

1. Photographs are not permitted under any circumstances.

Under no circumstances are photographs permitted.

2. We've never faced such a serious problem as this.

Never …….

3. I only realised it was Vanessa when she removed her hat.

Only …….

4. The audience didn't laugh at any point during the show.

At …….

5. As soon as Patrick had finished the e-mail, he sent it.

No …….

6. It wasn't clear who was going to win the match until the last few minutes.

Not …….

7. Dennis passed his driving test and had an accident almost immediately afterwards.

Hardly …….

8. I didn't learn the result of the match until I read the evening paper.

Only …….

9. The president will not resign under any circumstances.

Under …….

10. The accused showed no emotion at any time during the trial.

At …….


F   Complete the responses to these statements.

1. 'I wish I had more money.' 'So do I. '

2. 'We never seem to spend much time together in my family.' 'Neither ….…. '

3. 'I'm not going to Jacob's party next Sunday.' 'Nor ….…. '

4. 'I didn't do my homework last night.' 'No ….…. '

5. 'I'll be on holiday this time next week.' 'So ….…. '

6. 'I had no idea Chris was getting married.' 'Neither ….…. '

7. 'I should really get more exercise.' 'So ….…. '


G   Write one word in each gap.

1. Such a long way   was  it that we decided to go by train.

2. So badly ……. I play chess that I almost never agree to have a game.

3. Pupils are expected to behave politely, as ……. members of staff.

4. So tired ……. I that I decided to lie down for a while.

5. Such a threat to society ……. you that I have no choice but to send you to prison.

6. So cold ……. it last winter that all our pipes froze.

7. Calculators are banned from the examining room, as ……. dictionaries and handheld computers.

8. I have been having very strange dreams lately, as ……. my twin sister.


H Form possessives from the nouns given.


1. (Billy):   Billy’s  opinion

2. (my mum): ….…. cooking

3. (our next door neighbours): …….. cat

4. (George the Fifth): …….. daughter

5. (people): ……. prejudices

6. (the Greenes): …….. holiday home

7. (women): ….…. magazines

8. (the boss): …….. car

9. (Jack and Jill): …..…. wedding

10. (students): ….…. marks

11. (children): …….. shoes

12. (politicians): …….. promises


I Complete using the words in the box. Use each word only once.

her • hers • it's • its • mine • my • their • theirs


1. Tell Michelle that it's my problem, not    hers  .

2. Are you sure this isn't ……. , became it looks just like the one I was givenfor Christmas?

3. Thanks for the offer, but I think I'll use  … …. own money.

4. I saw a wallet on the floor next to a couple of tourrists and asked them if it was ……. .

5. Remind your sister to bring …….. book to the lesson tomorrow.

6. I’m not sure, but I think …….. Mark's bag, isnt it?

7. Could you make sure that your children don’t leave …….. toys in my garden again, please?

8. What secrets do you think the Moon might be hiding within …….. craters?


J  If a line is correct put a tick (✓) next to the number. If there is an extra word in a line, write it next to the number.


1      own  Well, Trisha. that's my own first day at my new job out of the way I wasn’t

2 _________ sure what to expect, but it turned out okay. My manager was really nice,

3 _________ much nicer than yours boss sounds from your letter. No sooner had I arrived

4 _________ at work than did he made me a cup of tea! It was a really pleasant surprise.

5 _________ Not only did he do that, but he was also kind enough to explain ro me how

6 _________ everything worked The office is really modern and its comfortable. The other

7 _________ people all have their own desks, but mine desk still hasn't been delivered, so

8 _________ I am sharing with someone else for now. Little did I not realise when I took

9 _________ the job that I was going to enjoy it so much. I have finally found a job that I

10 _________ am happy in, and so will you have, I'm sure. Hope tomorrow’s as much fun!



Unit 2       8                Vocabulary


Work and business

Topic vocabulary in contrast                                                         see page 197 for definitions

employer / employee / staff wage(s)/salary/pay overtime / promotion / pension
job/work/career commute /deliver company / firm / business
earn / win / gain retire / resign union / charity
raise / rise

fire / sack / make redundant


Phrasal verbs

back out decide not to do sth you agreed to do set up start (a business, organisation,etc)
bring out produce and start to sell a new product slow down decrease speed
close down stop operating (for companies) speed up increase speed
see through (to) continue (or help to continue) to the end of sth unpleasant or difficult stand in for do sb's job for them while they are not available
see to deal with take on start to employ; accept (work or responsibility)
set to start doing sth in a determined or enthusiastic way take over take control of (a business, etc)
set out start working on sth in order to achieve an aim turn down not accept (an offer, request, etc)


Phrases and collocations

agreement come to/reach (an) agreement (on/about sth); in agreement (on/about/with) sth
arrangement make an arrangement (with/for sb) (to do); have an arrangement (with sb) (to do)
business do business (with sb); in business; go somewhere on business; business trip; small business; big business
complaint have/make a complaint (about sth) (to sb); letter of complaint (to sb) (about sth)
day have/take/get a day off; day job; day trip; day by day; the other/next day
decision make/take a decision (to do sth);come to/reach/make a decision (about sth)
duty do one's duty; a sense of duty; on/off duty; have a duty to sb/todo
effort make an effort (to do); put effort into sth/doing
experience have an experience; have/gain/get experience in/of sth/doing; experienced in/at sth/doing
hold put/keep sb on hold; hold on (to sth); hold sth
interest have/take/express an interest in sth/doing; in your interest to do; earn/get/pay interest
interview have/go to/attend an interview; job interview
job do a job; have a job (to do); apply for a job; take/get a job; in a job
work do some work; have work to do; go to work; at work; work hard; out of work; place of work


Word patterns



Word formation




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