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Use the words in bold at the end of each line to form new words to fit in the spaces.




1. Don't depend on him, he is a very unreliable person. rely

2. I'd lost my key, so I couldn't..................the door when I got home. lock

3. Don't be so.................., we've only been waiting a few minutes. patient

4. Seven о’clock on Saturday is a rather.........time for an appointment. convenient

5. Please don't be so.................., I can't do all the work by myself. reason

6. The staff are always making mistakes because they are so................... efficient

7. Sorry about the mistake. I...............the instructions you gave me. understand

8. They ve..................my name on this rorm - the first letter is L not R. spell

9. An athlete who fails a drugs test is sure to be................. qualify

10. Every year thousands of species of plants and insects.................. appear

 

Spelling and pronunciation - 1: Vowels

One of the main difficulties of English spelling is that some words are pronounced the same, but are spelt differently and have different meanings. Can you think of words pronounced the same as each of these, but spelt differently?

guessed guest warn .............. meet .............. won .............. threw ..............

Work in pairs. Match the words on the right to the examples on the left, according to the vowel sound they share in common. Say them aloud to help you to decide.

pure vowels
/æ/ bad damage apple blood tongue country thorough
/e/ bed pleasure leisure lent/leant blue/blew root/route new/knew
/а:/ calm heart weak/week seize/seas wheel/we'll
// saw bored/board caught/court cushion butcher pull
/з:/ bird worm guilty witch/which mist/missed
/i:/ sheep piece/peace laugh castle half
// ship sink mystery not/knot knowledge quality
/ pot what yacht cough scandal flat
/u:/ boot truly threw/through bury/berry weather/whether check/cheque
  put should wood/would turn firm
/Λ/ cut worry money rough wore/war source/sauce raw/roar

2. Add these words to the appropriate group above, according to their vowel sounds:

business guard marry merry push receive soup walk wander wonder work

Find the mistakes in each of these sentences and correct them.

1. I am quiet shore that this weak is going too be wonderful.

2. We are tritely sorry that you had to weight so long far the delivery.

3. He has dredful manners - he paws tomato source on all his food.

4. They couldn't get thier new armchare threw the door.

5. Witch of these too alternatives is the write one?

6. He lent the ladder agenst the wall and climed onto the roof.

7. The celing and walls of this room need peinting ergently.

 

 

Spelling and pronunciation - 2: Diphthongs

Can you think of words which are pronounced the same as each of these, but spelt differently?

their there allowed ............. brake ............ whole ............. right ..............

Work in pairs. Match the words on the right to the examples on the left, according to the diphthong sound they share in common. Say them aloud to help you to decide.

/аι/ bite height guide eye/I destroy employer
/аu/ now crowd loud climate by/buy/bye thigh
/Qι/ boy join poison cleared atmosphere
/eə/ scarce where/wear folk nose/knows
/ιə/ steer here/hear fear wait/weight male/mail waste/waist
/eι/ make sale/sail great proud found
/əu/ note joke oval stares/stairs fare/fair pair/pear

2. Add these words to the appropriate group above:

frown paint point share sincere soap time

Write down the missing words in these sentences.

1. The part of your leg above the knees is your thigh.

2. What is your .................. measurement in centimetres?

3. What is your .................. in kilos?

4. What is your .................. in metres?

5. If you jump out of this window, you'll .................. your leg.

6. The .................. of New York is against smoking.

7. Smoking isn't .................. in restaurants in Los Angeles.

Write down three more sentences, using words from ex 2 above. Then join another student and dictate your sentences to each other.

 

Spelling and pronunciation - 3: Consonants

1. The consonant sounds of English can often be spelled in several ways. Look at these examples.


/p/ p or pp

stop stopped supposed ................. …………

/b/ b or bb

bubble beach ................

…………

/t/ t or it

capital bottle little ............. ………..

/d/ d or dd

mud handled muddy .................

…………

/k/ k or c or cc or ck or q or ch

king climate accommodation lucky quantity chemist ................. …………

/g/ g or gg or gu

garden struggle guard

................. …………

/X / j or g or dg

jet jumping religion knowledge

................. …………

/t∫/ ch or ti or tu

church question nature

................. …………

/l/ l or ll

skilful silly ................. …………

/n/ n or nn or kn

run running knowledge ................. …………..

/m/ m or mm or mb

image accommodation thumb

................. …………

/r/ r or rr or wr

right arrest wrist ......... ........

/s/ s or ss or c or st

stone fussy circle castle

/z/ s or z

rise arrives zero .................

…………

/∫/ sh or s or ti or c

shirt sure competition ocean

................. …………

/[/ s or g

leisure garage .................

 

/f / f or ff or ph or gh

afraid affair photograph

apostrophe enough .............. ................

 

v/ v or f

vacation of .............. ................

 

/d/ and /θ/ th

this clothes thirsty truth

................. …………

/w/ w or wh or u or o

weather/whether we'll/wheel

quite once ................. …………

 

/j/ y or u or eu

yacht union Europe .................


Some consonants are written but not pronounced. Here are some examples of these 'silent letters'. Can you think of two more examples to add to each list?

gn sign light caught fought ................. ................

b lamb bomb climb combing ............... ..................

t castle Christmas listen ................ .................

k knife knee ................ .................

1 half walk could ................ .................

r beard word (in some British accents only) ................. ................

h honest hourly ............... .................

w wrist ................. ................

 

Compound words - 1

A compound is a noun, an adjective or a verb that has been created from two or more simple words. The second word of a compound may follow the first after a space, or it may be linked more closely to it with a hyphen:



· car park

· swimming-pool

· daughter-in-law

· middle-of-the-road

You will often find a compound spelt by different people in different ways, and sometimes you may find it spelt as a single word with no space or hyphen.

The best way to learn compound words is to make a note of them when you read or hear them. Usually, the meaning of a compound word can be worked out from the meanings of the words it is made from.

What do the words in italic mean?

1. She is a kind-hearted person.

2. He uses a food processor.

3. He is left-handed.

4. A blue-eyed, red-haired boy.

5. May I see the wine list?

6. Have you got a can opener?

7. I've got a new wristwatch.

2. Most compound adjectives are written with a hyphen. Many compound nouns are written as two words or as one word (with no hyphen). Add more examples to the lists, using these words:

-aged -best -class -respect -grown -hand -known -level -off -speed -produced -discipline -service -sized -pressure floor name course cousin

first first cousin first-class ………… ………… …………
second second-class second course ………… ………… …………
high high speed high-pressure ………… ………… …………
low low-level ............ …………
home home-made ………… …………
middle middle-class middle name ………… …………
self self-control self-defence ………… ………… …………
well well-done well-informed ………… …………

Fill each gap with a word that combines with the one given to make a suitable compound.

1. made 2. old 3. food 4. home 5. tin 6. food 7. self 8. produced 9. course

10. food 11. fruit 12. water

 

In the good old days everything you ate was 1home-made and prepared in the traditional, 2 way. Nowadays, 3 is replacing the slow, careful preparation of fresh 4 vegetables and other ingredients. All the modern cook needs is a 5 and a 6 . It's not only in canteens and

7…………… cafeterias -even many restaurants serve 8 meals instead of individually prepared and cooked dishes for each customer. A steak or grilled fish is always freshly cooked. But it's unlikely that prawns in the prawn cocktail you had for your9 were fresh today: if you get 10 , they may be the cause. And if you suspect that the 11 isn't freshly squeezed, it may be safer to drink I2 !

Compound words - 2

1. Combine the words in these two lists to make compound nouns. These are compound nouns that are normally written as two words, with no hyphens.

For example: air travel and civil servant

air civil coffee computer exercise further general high higher instant intelligence personal railway restaurant savings school sports staff story tea television tennis university wholemeal account break book bread coffee computer court cup education education ground knowledge owner program professor room school servant set station teacher telling test travel

2. Combine the words in these two lists to make compound nouns. These are compound nouns that are normally written as one word, with no hyphens.

For example: airport and boyfriend

air boy bread chair class head home house note play post school tax time tooth tooth tooth ache ache book brush crumbs friend girl ground keeping man man paste payer room table work

3. Combine the words in these two lists to make compound adjectives. Remember that most compound adjectives are normally written with hyphens.

For example: absent-minded and accident-prone





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