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1. Then we got down to world politics in general; I was quite surprised to look at my watch and find it a quarter to two. (A.Christie)
2. He turned and walked off, knowing that young Syd was being watched by Divisional Men. (J.J.Marric)
3. In the sudden shock of seeing a man whom he imagined far away in South Africa, he lost his head and stepped back upon the line. He was always a coward. Under the pretext of being a doctor, I managed to search his pockets. (A.Christie)
4. As luck would have it, here we found an overhanging slab of rock carpeted beneath with smooth sand, which afforded a most grateful shelter from the heat. Underneath this we crept, and each of us having drunk some water and eaten a bit of biltong, we lay down and soon were sound asleep. It was three o’clock in the afternoon before we woke, to find our bearers preparing to return. (H.R.Haggard)
5. Half-way back to Bulawayo we stopped for tea at a somewhat primitive structure at the side of the road. The proprietor was digging in the garden, and seemed annoyed at being disturbed. (A.Christie)
6. On his ninth birthday he was sent back to the workhouse. It has recently been decided that the workhouse had become too popular with the poor. They liked living there, for indeed it cost them nothing! New rules were made to stop them enjoying themselves and to reduce the cost of keeping them there. (Ch. Dickens)
7. That explains why the Mill House was chosen. Pagett could probably get in and out of it unobserved. Of course he made no objection to my accompanying Sir Eustace across in the boat. (A.Christie)
8. There were many carriages standing in the road by the sandpits, and a lot of bicycles…Going to the edge of the pit, I found it occupied by a group of men-Henderson, Ogilvy, and a tall man that I afterwards learnt was Stent, the Astronomer Royal, with some workmen with spades. (H.Wells)
9. Violence was condemned by the world’s leading Islamic body. “Overreactions surpassing the limits of peaceful democratic acts… are dangerous and detrimental to the efforts to defend the legitimate case of the Muslim world, ” the 57-nation Saudi-based Organisation of the Islamic Summit said in a statement from its secretary general, Ekmelettin Ihsanoglu. He called the protests “regrettable and deplorable”. (Guardian, 02, 2006)
Переведите отрывки из произведений британских и американских авторов, применяя известные вам приемы. Обоснуйте выбор.
I. For your information
A. Please do not change seats without consulting a flight attendant. Vacant seats may already be assigned from the next city.
B. Federal Aviation Regulation, Part 121.575 states:
1. No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage to him.
2. No certificate holder may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard any of its aircraft if that person appears to be intoxicated.
3. No certificate holder may allow any person to board any of its aircraft of that person appears to be intoxicated.
C.Federal regulation prohibits smoking in the lavatories and in the no-smoking section of all aircraft including aisles.
Thank you for flying Delta!
(Delta Air Lines Boarding pass)
II. The few words that Basil’s friend had said to him — words spoken by chance, no doubt, and with wilful paradox in them — had yet touched some secret chord, that had never been touched before, but that he felt was now vibrating and throbbing to curious pulses.
Music had stirred him like that. Music had troubled him many times. But music was not articulate. It was not a new world, but rather a new chaos, that it created in us. Words! Mere words! How terrible they were! How clear, and vivid, and cruel! One could not escape from them. And yet what a subtle magic there was in them! They seemed to be able to give a plastic form to formless things, and to have a music of their own as sweet as that of viol or of lute. Mere words! Was there anything so real as words?
(O.Wilde. The Picture of Dorian Gray, 100-101)
III. Yet it was watching him, with its beautiful marred face and its cruel smile. Its bright hair gleamed in the early sunlight. Its blue eyes met his own. A sense of infinite pity, not for himself, but for the painted image of himself, came over him. It had altered already, and would alter more. Its gold would wither into gray. Its red and white roses would die. For every sin that he committed, a stain would fleck and wreck its fairness. But he would not sin. The picture, changed or unchanged, would be to him the visible emblem of conscience. He would resist temptation. He would not see Lord Henry any more, — would not, at any rate, listen to those subtle poisonous theories that in Basil Hallward’s garden had first stirred within him the passion for impossible things. He would go back to Sibyl Vane, make her amends, marry her, try to love her again. Yes, it was his duty to do so. She must have suffered more than he had. Poor child! He had been selfish and cruel to her. The fascination that she had exercised over him would return. They would be happy together. His life with her would be beautiful and pure.
(O.Wilde. The Picture of Dorian Gray, 188)
IV. But the dog didn’t show a thing. “Here, Buck, ” the Boss called.
Tom Stark prodded the dog with his toe for a little encouragement, but he might just as well have been prodding a bolster.
“Buck is gitten on, ” Old man Stark said. “He ain’t right spry any more.” Then the old man went to the steps and stooped down with a motion which made you expect to hear the sound of old rusty hinges on a barn door. “Hi, Buck, hi, Buck, ” the old man wheedled without optimism. He gave up, and lifted his gaze to the Boss. “If he was hongry now, ” he said, and shook his head. If he was hongry we could guile him. But he ain’t hongry. His teeth gone bad.”
The Boss looked at me, and I knew what I was paid to do.
“Jack, ” the Boss said, “get the hairy bastard up here and make him look like he was glad to see me.”
I was supposed to do a lot of things, and one of them was to lift up fifteen-year-old, hundred-and-thirty-five-pound hairy white dogs on summer afternoons and paint an expression of unutterable bliss upon their faithful features as they gaze deep, deep the Boss’s eyes.
(R.P.Warren. All the King’s men)
V. George told us about a man he had known, who had come up the river two years ago, and who had slept out in a damp boat on just such another night as that was, and it had given him rheumatic fever, and nothing was able to save him, and he had died in great agony ten days afterwards. George said he was quite a young man, and was engaged to be married. He said it was one of the saddest things he had ever known.
And that put Harris in mind of a friend of his, who had been in the Volunteers, and who had slept out under canvas one wet night down at Aldershot, “on just such another night as this”, said Harris; and he had woke up in the morning a cripple for life. Harris said he would introduce us both to the man when we got back to town; it would make our hearts bleed to see him.
(J.K.Jerome. Three Men in a Boat)
VI. Private Lee Meets Russian General
The event took place in the Allied Control Building in the west sector of Berlin back in 1966. I was put in a guard position in this building! I was wearing white gloves, and white helmet, and white shoe laces and etc! There where 4 top level Allied Power Generals came into this building to have a top level meeting! As they came in front of me in a single file, I came to attention with rifle in present arms position. First, the American General, second, the British General, third, the French General, and then the Russian General being fourth. Only this Russian General had a small dog on a leash!
The Russian General was a huge man, and had big round stomach, big as a table round. He had a head that was large too! In his hand, he had the leash to this small, and I mean small dog. The small dog was about 4 inches high, and about 6 to 8 inches long! It was a small dog for this huge big, Russian General. The Russian General was attempting to follow these other Allied Generals up the stairs to the meeting room. The little dog on the leash could not get up the steps of the stairs, and the big huge headed Russian General could not bend over and pick the small dog up to carry him up the stairs.
When I saw the Russian General could not pick the dog up and carry him! I knew I had to do something! I came down with my rifle from present arms to parade rest, and leaned my rifle over to the wall knowing I may get into trouble doing this, but I did it anyway! I felt the Russian General needed help with the small dog. I picked the small dog up and put it into the Russian General’s arms. He mumbled something to me which I did not understand! He appeared to be thanking me! He proceeded up the stairwell well, which turned as it went up! I went back and retrieved my rifle, and went to present arms again! As the Russian General and his small dog got to the turn in the stairs, he looked back at me down underneath, and gave me a big “Wink”! He and the small dog walked into the meeting room single file with the other Generals, and I never saw them again!
(Horace Jerry Lee)
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ СИНОНИМИЧЕСКОГО РЯДА
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ АУДИТОРНЫХ ЗАНЯТИЙ
I. Прокомментируйте следующие положения:
1. «Лингвистическая природа синонимии определяется различной степенью семантической близости языковых единиц и объясняется асимметрией знака и значения, их неустойчивым равновесием, что приводит к образованию полисемии и синонимии».
2. «Различие между синонимами как словами с идентичным предметным значением может идти по нескольким линиям. Синонимы могут совпадать не во всех словарных значениях (если сравниваемые слова являются многозначными); совпадать не во всех комбинаторных значениях (т.е. различаться сочетаемостью); различаться по компонентному составу значений (т.е. иметь различные дефинирующее, эмоциональное и ассоциативное значение); различаться по месту распространения, времени использования и по сфере употребления. Таким образом, различие между синонимами (в случае, если многозначные слова сравниваются в одном из своих значений) носит стилистический характер. Исходя из перечисленных признаков, можно выделить несколько разновидностей синонимов, основными из которых являются синонимы:
a) полные и частичные;
б) комбинаторно-тождественные и комбинаторно нетождественные;
в) одинаковые по компонентному составу (семантические дуплеты) и различные по компонентному составу (эмоционально нетождественные, ассоциативно нетождественные, дефинирующе нетождественные);
г) одностилевые и разностилевые.
Особую группу составляют американо-британские синонимы, т.е. наименования одних и тех же предметов, принятых соответственно в американском и британском вариантах английского языка».
Т.И. Арбекова (123-124)
3. «Совпадая по своему предметному составу, синонимы отличаются другими компонентами и делятся на семантические (идеографические), оттеняющие разные стороны обозначаемого объекта. В русск. — кроткий, незлобный, покорный, смирный; в англ.: gentle (мягкий, нежный), meek (кроткий, смиренный), mild (спокойный, кроткий, мягкий), humble (скромный, покорный, почтительный), obedient (послушный, покорный), quiet (тихий, сдержанный) и стилистические, дающие различную характеристику обозначаемого объекта: лицо — лик — рожа».
4. «Ложные синонимы являются наименованиями предметов, обладающих общностью существенных признаков, и выражают понятия, которые с точки зрения логики являются подчиненными (родовое и видовое понятие) или соподчиненными (виды одного рода) < …>
Можно выделить две основные разновидности ложных синонимов: взаимозаменяемые в отдельных случаях (типа vehicle и car) и невзаимозаменяемые (типа famous и notorious)».
Т.И. Арбекова (132-134)
5. «На первый взгляд может показаться странным, что даже некоторые опытные мастера художественного перевода пользуются словарями английских синонимов в трудных случаях при подыскивании нужного слова… Однако, если учесть сложную смысловую структуру многих английских слов и особенности их контекстуального использования, то станет ясно, почему иной раз наводящее указание на искомое значение переводимого слова может дать только синонимический словарь < …>
Изданный впервые в 1852 году «Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases» Питера Роже является, пожалуй, самым распространенным словарем синонимов английского языка. Словарь Роже дает очень широкие возможности выбора синонима, помогающего найти русское соответствие трудно переводимому слову.
< …> И для разграничения стилистических синонимов, и для характеристики слов вообще используются стилистические пометы. Эти пометы служат большим подспорьем для переводчика, особенно же пометы экспрессивного ряда, составляющие следующую разветвленную систему: вежливое, возвышенное, вульгарное, грубое, ироническое, ласкательное, неодобрительное, презрительное, пренебрежительное, усилительное, шутливое, эвфемизм (см. БАРС)».
6. «Синонимический перевод — передача малоизвестной в стране ПЯ иноязычной реалии посредством интернационализма или национально-культурной номинации, обозначающих близкородственные реалии и понятия.
< …> Основные требования к синонимическому переводу: использование языковых единиц, не обладающих узконациональным «фоновым значением»; использование национальных вторичных номинаций, функционирующих наряду с иноязычным заимствованным термином; создание неологизма, близкого по смыслу единице ИЯ («окказиональный перевод» терминов), создание новой номинации (при переводе заголовков и названий художественных произведений: книг, фильмов, спектаклей и т.д.)».
II. Изучите материал С.С.Кузьмина  и сформулируйте правила, которыми необходимо руководствоваться при переводе фразеологизмов.
Translating by English equivalents
Translating by English equivalent seems to be the most productive way of making our proverbs’ translations figurative.
When using this method, translators and interpreters have to observe that an equivalent is properly selected from the dictionary, that is, the chosen equivalent —
(a) should be able to convey the Russian proverb’s indices for interpretation: meaning, usage, overtones and style;
(b) it should particularly answer the obligatory requirement that its meaning could be understood even by those who hear the English proverb for the first time.
(c) Besides, it is preferable that the equivalent itself should not be archaic,
(d) and its image should be as close to that of the Russian proverb as possible.
(e) The equivalent should not have undesirable connotations.
(a) Indices for Interpretation
Suppose we have to translate the following Russian extract (containing a proverb) and we want to select one of the following synonymous equivalents for its translation.
— Пуганая ворона куста боится, — смеясь, сказал Артемьев, — Каспарин этот — трус, да разве он на что-либо решится (Шолохов, Тихий Дон)
(1) Once bitten, twice shy.
(2) A (the) burnt child dreads the fire.
The meaning of this Russian proverb may be worded as
“He who is frightened once, fears everything.”
The first English equivalent describes a person who has been “bitten” (which does not necessarily mean that this person is a coward in principle) whereas the context of the Russian extract states plainly: the person is a coward (“трус”). The lack of harmony between the equivalent and the context does not evidently permit us to employ this English proverb here. (You remember that — in Commentary to Ex. 21 — the Russian proverb “He так страшен черт, как его малюют” did not exactly correspond to the relative equivalent “The devil is not so black as he is painted” and we had to innovate this English proverb lexically: “black” - “terrible”.) In other words, the meaning of the Russian proverb “Пуганая ворона куста боится” used in the given context, and the meaning of the equivalent “Once bitten, twice shy” do not coincide.
The second synonymous equivalent (“A burnt child dreads the fire”) has the component “dreads” which semantically corresponds to the component “пуганая” (“frightened”). However, the component “child” is not in harmony now with the given context where the “coward” (Kaparin by name) is no “child” at all being a ruthless Cossack and a killer.
Thus, both of the synonymous equivalents may nоt be used for the translation of the given extract (and the possible way of translating this will be shown later).
(b, c, d) Intelligible, Not Archaic, Similar in Image
A dictionary may, for example, show that a number of English proverbs might correspond to the Russian proverb “Рука руку моет”:
(1) Claw me, and I’ll claw thee.
(2) Roll my log and I will roll yours.
(3) You play my game and I’ll play yours.
(4) One hand washes another.
(5) Scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.
Firstly, we see that equivalent 1 is archaic (“thee”). Equivalents 2, 3 and 4 are rarely used nowadays but their meaning can be understood by anyone, Equivalent 5 is used frequently in the contemporary language.
Secondly, the image of equivalent 4 (“One hand washes another”) is closer to that of “Рука руку моет” than any image of others.
It stands to reason that we have now to choose one out of the two: “Scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” and “One hand washes another”. And we would prefer the latter, for it (b) can be understood, (c) does not sound archaic and (d) its image (“hand”) is close to that of “Рука руку моет”. (Besides, its meaning and the meaning of the Russian proverb coincide.)
However, the question might remain: can we use “One hand washes another” in contemporary speech despite the fact that this English proverb is rarely used nowadays? The answer is yes. Why? Because it is clear.
e) Undesirable Connotations
Let us see a Russian extract and some synonymous equivalents taken from the dictionary.
Раз взялся за гуж, не говори,
a что не дюж. (Шолохов, Тихий Дон)
Equivalents: (1) In for a penny, in for pound.
(2) Once you pledge don’t hedge.
The first equivalent contains the components “penny” and “pound” whereas the characters of the novel (“And Quiet Flows the Don”) live and act in Russia and not in Great Britain. It is evident that the equivalent “In for a penny, in for a pound” cannot be used (in the given сontext) because it gives birth to undesirable connotatiоns.
The second equivalent is rarely used nowadays but its meaning coincides with that of the Russian proverb whose meaning can be worded is “Once you began doing this, don’t refuse now and go through it all the way”. However, we see that the translator Stephen Garry did not use this equivalent:
Да, станицу не взяли, стало быть нам тут не удержаться, —
Фомин молча посмотрел на него, повернулся к Капарину:
— Раскис, ваше благородие? Утри сопли! Раз взялся за гуж,
— Я на пулеметы в лоб не пойду. — Пустое это занятие.
(Шолохов, Тихий Дон)
“Yes. We haven’t captured the district centre, so we shan’t be able to hold out here, ” Fomin said quietly.
“Let’s have a ride round the region, Yakov Yefimovich. It’s no good getting scared now! In any case we shan’t die before we’re dead. We’ll raise the Cossacks, and then the district centre will be ours, ” Chumakov proposed.
Fomin stared at him without speaking and turned to Kaparin.
“Feeling down in the mouth, Your Excellency? Stop snivelling!
You may as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb! We’ve begun together, now let’s carry on together. What do you think? Should we withdraw from Vyeshenskaya or try again? ” Chumakov said sharply: “Let others try! I’m not going to face a machine-gun. That’s a hopeless game.”
(“And Quiet Flows the Don” by M. Sholokhov, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Book Four, p. 708)
Firstly, one can see that M. Sholokhov has used the Russian proverb “Раньше смерти не умрешь” which is synonymous to the proverb ‘Двум смертям не бывать, а одной не миновать”, the latter corresponding to “You (we, etc.) may (might) as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb”. And the translator used “We shan’t die before we’re dead”, which is (it seems so by obvious connotations) an innovation of the English proverb “Cowards die many times before their death.”
Secondly, the meaning of the proverb “Взялся за гуж, не говори, что не дюж” does not coincide with the meaning of “You may as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb”. At first glance, this translation may not seem to contradict the context, though this impression is misleading. Indices for interpretation should coincide if we want our translation to be adequate:
“In any case we might as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. We’ll raise the Cossacks...”
“... Stop snivelling! Once you pledge don’t hedge. We’ve begun together, now let’s carry on together....”
Besides, we realize that M. Sholokhov has actually made a pair of
synonymous-relation statements (See Task 8): “Раз взялся за гуж, не говори, что не дюж. [То есть: ] Вместе начинали, давай вместе и вытягивать”. This being another reason why we have to translate it as: “Once you pledge don’t hedge. [That is: ] We’ve begun together, now let’s carry on together.”
And as far as the corresponding translation by Stephen Garry is concerned, it presents a pair of statements whose relations are accidental: “You may as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. (And: ) We’ve begun together, now let’s carry on together”.
Translating by means of adequate English equivalents may be a best method of translating proverbs. English equivalents may be better (more idiomatic) than any one of translators’ equivalents” (Chapter 8, pp.218-222)
III. Прокомментируйте параллельные переводы; при необходимости предложите свой вариант.
(H.R.Haggard. King Solomon’s Mines. Tr. by Markovich)
(M.Twain. The Prince and the Pauper. Tr. By K.I.Chukovsky, N.K.Chukovsky)
(O.Henry. Squaring the Circle. Tr. by N.Darouzes)
(J.K.Rowling. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Tr. by M.D.Litvinova)
(J.K.Jerome. Three men in a Boat. Tr. by M.Salye)
ВАРИАНТ ЗАДАНИЙ №1
I. Прокомментируйте параллельные переводы; при необходимости предложите свой вариант.
(J.K.Jerome. Three men in a Boat. Tr. by M.Salye)
(O.Henry. Squaring the Circle. Tr. by N.Darouzes)
(J.Galsworthy. The Forsyte Saga. To Let. Tr. by N. Volpin)
(J.Galsworthy. The Forsyte Saga. To Let. Tr. by N. Volpin)
II. Приведите свои примеры перевода лексических единиц
одного синонимического ряда.
III. Найдите фрагменты из британских или американских
а) при переводе текста которых необходимо использовать
б) в тексте перевода которых использовались синонимические ряды;
приведите наиболее и наименее удачные на Ваш взгляд варианты перевода
IV. Выявите параметры, по которым различаются данные синонимы:
a) amuse, entertain, recreate, divert
b) allow, permit, let
c) discuss, debate, argue, dispute, talk over
d) do, perform, execute, accomplish, act, fulfill, carry out
e) defend, protect, guard, safeguard, shield
f) estimate, value, evaluate, appreciate, appraise, assess, esteem
V. Переведите предложения, обратив внимание
на передачу оттенков значения единиц, которые
относятся к тому или иному синонимическому ряду.
1. But she might be very miserable; she was so young, so friendless, so utterly alone among all those wooden people. (Voynich)
2. He’s lonely, he can’t bear that great empty house… (Du Maurier)
3. …he sickly guess’d
How lone he was once more, and sadly press’d
His empty arms together, hung his head… (Keats)
4. Rather forlorn, more than a little dissatisfied, I leant back in my chair and took up the book of poems. (Du Maurier)
5. Like a watcher forgotten upon some solitary isle, who… has long abandoned hope, the sudden sight of the means of her rescue filled her with an unbelievable, almost unbelieving ecstasy. (Cronin)
6. The heavy chair was in his way. He seized it and threw it across the room where it crashed into the side-board. (Len Doherty).
7. “Holding the lamp, Aladdin turned to Abu, who was just about to snatch the jewel from the monkey idol. “Abu! No! ” (Fairy-tale)
8. When he saw them, he stuck his chin between the iron bars and gripped his hands around it. (Caldwell)
9. “First give me the lamp.” Aladdin fumbled for the lamp and held it out to Jafar, who quickly grabbed it away. Jafar’s eyes gleamed as he clutched the lamp with both hands. “Yes! At last! ” (Fairy-tale)
10. Aladdin looked at his pet monkey, Abu, then eyed Jafar suspiciously.
11. Abu crouched beside Aladdin, who was staring in amazement. (Fairy-tale)
12. < …> chamber filled floor-to ceiling with all kinds of treasure and jewels. Aladdin surveyed the scene in wonder. “Would you look at that? ”
13. The little side porch which ornamented its south wall commanded a charming view of the river… (Dreiser)
14. How did it alter anything — the sight of her? (Galsworthy)
15. For a moment she wavered… but I was very firm. (Du Maurier)
16. It was a deep, comfortable room… the sort of room a man would move from never, did he live alone: solid chairs beside a great open fire-place. (Du Maurier)
17. The minute these orders that are coming now are turned into solid business… you‘re going to get a rise, a hundred or two a year… (Priestley)
18. A hard man, Mr. Holms, hard to all about him. (Doyle)
19. He was too dazed to think, though he was aware that he didn’t like himself… She knew they were failures, and he read her disapproval in every perfunctory and unenthusiastic line of her letter. (London)
20. Yes, there would be a day when his face would be wrinkled and wizened, his eyes dim and colorless, the grace of his figure broken and deformed. The scarlet would pass away from his lips, and the gold steal from his hair. The life that was to make his soul would mar his body. He would become dreadful, hideous, and uncouth…
”How sad it is! ” murmured Dorian Gray, with his eyes still fixed upon his own portrait. “How sad it is! I shall grow old, and horrible, and dreadful. But this picture will remain always young. It will never be older than this particular day of June… If it were only the other day! If it were I who was to be always young, and the picture that was to grow old! For that – for that – I would give everything! Yes, there is nothing in the whole world I would not give! I would give my soul for that! ” (O.Wilde)
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