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Task VI. Перепишите предложения, определите в них Причастие I или Герундий. Переведите предложения на русский язык.




1. The officer must show the warrant to the person being arrested and must inform him of the cause of the arrest.

2. Criminal laws determine general principles of combating crime as well as the punishment applied to persons who have committed these crimes.

3. Having examined the causes of the crime the court sentences the criminal to imprisonment.

4. Punishment aims at reforming and re-educating the convicted person and at preventing further crime.

5. Judges are concerned with interpreting and applying statute law which is now the main source of legal development.

Task VII. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. The accused might be discharded conditionally.

2. The investigator was to have already solved this crime.

3. The court is to examine all cases coming before it objectively.

4. The advice of your solicitor should not be ignored.

5. You should give some figures and facts in your report.

6. Such documents mustn’t be sent by post.

Task VIII. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя необходимые по смыслу модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. Вердикт присяжных должен быть единогласным.

2. Он должен приехать на следующей неделе.

3. Ты можешь дать мне необходимую информацию?

4. Обвиняемый вынужден был принять свою вину.

5. Должно быть назначено новое жюри присяжных.

Task IX. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму сослагательного наклонения и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. If offenders (to be) under 14 they (to be sentenced) to imprisonment.

2. If there (to be) no bad people, there (to be) no good lawyers (Ch. Dickers).

3. If the witness (not to be ill), he (to be present) at the trial.

4. The prisoner (not to escape), if his wife (not to help) him.

5. If the international relations be good then, it (to lose) its significance.

Task X.Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на сказуемые в сослагательном наклонении.

1. Я думаю, если у нее будет какая-либо информация, она скажет нам.

2. Если детектив тщательно изучит досье по делу, он быстро найдет грабителя.

3. Если бы у него не было иностранного акцента, я бы думал, что он русский.

4. Если бы они подозревали его, они бы нам сказали об этом.

5. Если бы она не сделала тайну из этого, мы бы все поняли.

Task XI. Разделите текст на несколько частей, и озаглавьте каждую из них.

Task XII. Составьте пять типов вопросов к тексту.

Вариант V

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

 

America's notoriety for crime is well-founded. The outlawing of alcohol in 1919-33, known as the period of "Prohibition", encouraged the growth of a huge network of corruption and blackmail and gang rivalry, and when Prohibition ended, the network of organized crime that it had fostered turned to other types of activity - nowadays based on drugs as well as ordinary large-scale robbery. In Hollywood's version the big men of crime are confident men of power and wealth. In real life today their empire runs from big-time robbery and drug dealing through exploitation of permitted gambling in Nevada and Atlantic City to legitimate business Financed by illicit gains. As visitors to Las Vegas walk among the cascading lights outside the gambling halls they may admire the marvelous offensive and defensive armaments of Al Capone's ancient bullet-proof car, now in a miniature street-side museum and serving as a reminder of the origins of the gambling halls.

But the crimes that worry most ordinary Americans are the more ordinary ones. Robbery and acts of violence have increased nearly tenfold in thirty years, in cities many people are afraid to go out at night. In New York, when an ordinary traveler in a subway train shot some robbers who were attacking passengers, and permanently injured one of them, he became a public hero and a huge campaign was mounted in his defence when he was taken to court. His acquittal in 1987 produced more joy than protest - though he was found guilty of a minor offence.

Although the perpetrators of most crimes arc not caught, the number of criminals who are convicted is great enough to crowd the prisons. In 1988 more that half a million people were in prison - more than twice as many as in any Western European country, in proportion to population. Nearly all these were in stale prisons.

Although each state has full responsibility for its prisons, the seventh amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits "cruel and unusual punishments", and if any evidence suggests that a state prison system may he breaking this rule an action against it may be brought in the federal courts. In a series of cases, federal courts have ruled that prisoners being held in overcrowded conditions are indeed being subjected to "cruel arid unusual punishment", and the logical consequence of these ruling was strict intervention by the federal courts in the operation of state prisons. By 1987 more than half the states were subject to court orders requiring them to improve conditions, and at least one line had been imposed for noncompliance. In nine states judges had appointed special administrators. Meanwhile (here was activity in building new prisons and expanding old ones, and some states were using private enterprise to cut their costs - claiming that such methods were successful. Thousands of prisoners were being released prematurely, and judges were being encouraged to try, as far as possible within reason, to avoid sentencing guilty people to imprisonment but to use alternatives, from community service to probation at home under close supervision. Some counties in New York State have used a new device, allowing people sentenced to imprisonment to stay in their homes for fixed periods instead, and providing them with electronic bracelets linked to a computer so as to monitor their movements. A home prisoner who breaks a personal curfew must go to jail.

 

Notes:

notoriety – дурная слава; известность; знаменитость

well-founded – обоснованный; хорошо подготовленный; сведущий

period of “Prohibition” – сухой закон



to foster – поощрять, благоприятствовать;

illicit – незаконный, недозволенный, запрещенный

gains – доходы, заработок

tenfold – десятикратный; вдесятеро

perpetrator – нарушитель, преступник

to monitor – контролировать, проверять; вести радиоперехват

curfew – комендантский час

Task I. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What period of time is known as the period of “Prohibition”? Why?

2. What is the network of organized crime based on?

3. What are the most common crimes in America? Give some examples.

4. What is the usual penalty for these crimes?

5. Why are the state prisons overcrowded?

6. Who is responsible for the operation of prisons?

7. What do the majority court orders require from the states?

8. What measures are taken to improve the situation?

Task II. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и выражения:

- outlawing of alcohol

- network of corruption

- gang rivalry

- big-time robbery

- to legitimate business

- acts of violence

- amendment

- federal courts

- probation

- goal

- offensive and defensive armaments

- minor offence

- close supervision

Task III. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

To be based …; to turn …; reminder …; … defense; to take … the court; to be found guilty … offence; to be … prison; to have responsibility …prisons; to be brought … the federal court; to be subjected … “cruel and unusual punishment”; … least; probation … home … close supervision; to sentence … imprisonment;

Task IV. Выберите из текста словосочетания с следующими словами:

1. gang crime

2. organized offence

3. to legitimate punishment

4. to find curfew

5. cruel courts

6. personal robbery

7. court guilty

8. federal order

9. large-scale service

10. community business

11. minor rivalry

Task V. Найдите в тексте следующие слова и выражения на английском языке.

приговорить к тюремному заключению, частное предприятие, под строгим надзором, азартные игры, оправдание, улучшить условия, невыполнение требований, запрет на алкоголь, поправка к конституции.





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