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V. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите абзац 1.



International Finance


1. Capital movements between countries are classified either as current account or capital account movements. Current account movements refer to payments for imports and exports, as well as the payment of interest and dividends. During any year, a given country will have either a surplus or a deficit of current account transactions. Capital account movements refer to the purchase or sale of securities in one country by citizens of another country. Such transactions will also result in a net surplus or deficit for a given country. A net deficit of both current account and capital account transactions represents the net financial resources that have flowed out of a country; a net surplus represents the financial resources that have flowed into a country.

2. Each country has its own currency in which it will demand payment for net surpluses. Germany, for example, uses marks, Belgium uses Belgian francs, and France uses French francs. The value of one currency relative to another depends on which country has a net deficit to the other. If the United States, for instance, has a net deficit to France, the value of the French franc will rise relative to the dollar. This relative value is indicated by the exchange rate, which represents the cost of one unit of a given currency in terms of another. For example, an exchange rate of 43 cents per mark means that 43 cents must be paid to obtain one mark, while about 2.3 marks would obtain $1.


VI. Определите, являются ли приведенные ниже утверждения (1, 2, 3):

а) истинными (true)

б) ложными (false)

c) в тексте нет информации (no information)


1. A net surplus represents the natural resources.

2. A national account is a major account with a nationwide business.

3. The relative value is indicated by the exchange rate.


Занесите свои ответы в таблицу:




VII. Прочитайте абзац 2 и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What does the exchange rate represent?



Контрольная работа №4

Вариант 1




In 1954, a milkshake mixer salesman named Ray Kroc traveled to San Bernardino, California, to see why one restaurant had ordered so many of his Multimixers. The McDonald brothers had invented a new concept in the restaurant business and Kroc wanted to see for himself why the business was so popular. Dick and Mac McDonald had pioneered fast food based on high volume, low prices, limited menu, and quick service. The restaurant was a success, and Ray Kroc wanted it. He negotiated an agreement with the McDonald brothers in which he would become the exclusive franchiser of the McDonald name.

In 1955, the first McDonald's franchise opened in Des Plaines, Illinois. The McDonald's empire would be based on four core values—providing customers with quality, service, cleanliness, and value (QSCV). Kroc believed that consistency in these core values would allow McDonald's to build a strong brand image throughout the United States. He was right. The concept was a success, and by 1963 McDonald's was selling one million hamburgers a day.

The first international McDonald's opened in Canada in 1967. McDonald's continued its international expansion into Japan, Germany, Australia, France, and England in the 1970s. Additional outlets were established in Latin America, the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and China. The motive for McDonald's international expansion was the realization that most potential sales existed outside the United States. As Kroc had said in 1954, when he witnessed the McDonald brothers' original restaurant concept, "This idea can sell anywhere." Based on the need for additional sales growth and the belief that the concept could be exported, McDonald's embarked on an aggressive international expansion effort beginning in the 1970s. Today, McDonald's has restaurants in over 100 countries and derives approximately 60% of its profits from sales overseas. On average, the company opens a new restaurant somewhere in the world every five hours, and a McDonald's can be found on every continent except Antarctica.

Prior to 1996, McDonald's did not have a restaurant anywhere on the Indian subcontinent. With a population of over one billion, many view India as a market with enormous potential. India's population is second only to China, and, with differing birth rates, India will become the most populated country in the world by 2020, according to some estimates.

  1. Find the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

рост продаж, огромный потенциал, согласно некоторым оценкам, большой объем, темпы рождаемости, низкая цена, продажи за рубежом, быстрое обслуживание, продавец;

основываться на главных ценностях, создать известный брэнд, создать новую концепцию, открыть торговую точку, извлекать прибыль, быть успешным, быть инициатором организации быстрого питания;

  1. Translate into Russian:

to invent a new concept; to pioneer fast food; to be based on core values; to provide customers with quality; to build a strong brand image; to be a success; to establish an outlet; to derive profits;

salesman; high volume; low price; aggressive expansion; potential sales; sales growth; sales overseas; enormous potential; birth rates; according to some estimates; quick service;


  1. Match the following:

1. quick a. value

2. core b. service

3. strong c. volume

4. high d. expansion

5. potential e. brand image

6. aggressive f. sales

7. enormous g. potential


4. Say whether these statements are true or false:

1. Kroc knew for sure that this idea could sell anywhere and that is why he became the exclusive franchiser of the McDonald name.

2. A new concept in the restaurant business turned out to be unpopular across the globe.

3. McDonald’s continued its international expansion into India because it was completely sure of the enormous potential of the Indian market.

4. It was consistency in the four core values and not other factors that made McDonald’s so popular.


  1. Translate the text in a written form.

Вариант 2




India represented a big challenge to McDonald's because most Indians could not eat the main menu item—the beef hamburger. Over 80% of the Indian population is Hindu and this religion prohibits the consumption of cow products. Also, approximately 40% of Indians are strict vegetarians and eat no meat of any kind. A significant percentage of the Indian population is Muslim, which also prohibits the consumption of pork products.

India is a federal republic, which gained its independence from Great Britain in 1947. After many years of British rule, Mahatma Gandhi led a mass movement for independence. Since that time, India has been as its constitution states, a "sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic." The economic self-reliance or "swadeshi" begun under Gandhi influenced public policy in India for over 40 years. India finally began to liberalize economic policy after experiencing a severe foreign currency crisis. In 1991, major changes occurred that made foreign investment easier, including reduced tariffs, removal of non-tariff barriers to trade, and loosened foreign investment restrictions and currency controls.

India still remains a poor country and a difficult market for Western companies. Per capita GDP is $420 and at least 350 million Indians live on less than a dollar a day. The government recognizes eighteen languages, with Hindi being the most widely spoken. English is also spoken, especially in urban areas and among the better-educated component of the population. Violent religious clashes occur between Hindus and Christians and between Hindus and Muslims, and there is a current movement to establish an all-Hindu India. The religious and social class tolerances advocated by Gandhi do not seem to be as well accepted by many in India today. India is a country divided by languages, religion, and caste.

In 1996, McDonald's opened its first restaurant in India. The first McDonald's in India was located in Delhi and was the only McDonald's outlet worldwide not to offer beef on its menu. Due to dietary restrictions imposed by religion, McDonald's had to be creative in its product offerings. Without the possibility of serving beef or pork, McDonald's offered the lamb patty and a veggie burger. The Big Mac was named the Maharaja Mac and substituted ground lamb for beef. After opening its second restaurant in India, this one in


Mumbai (Bombay), McDonald's had invested $14 million, yet the company was not completely sure of the potential of the Indian market. Although business was brisk at both locations, some concerns were raised.

Some consumers complained about the bland taste of the food. Accustomed to the spicy traditional Indian food, McDonald's meals seemed too plain for some consumers. There was also a concern about the political stability of the country and long-term acceptance of McDonald's in India. The Indian government did not support the entry of McDonald's into the country and some Indians protested the arrival of the American multinational. Previous American franchises have been the target of vandalism in India in the past. KFC, Dominos Pizza, and Pizza Hut all have several locations in India, and some of the restaurants have experienced difficulties with political mobs. McDonald's is perhaps in an even more vulnerable position because its primary product worldwide (beef) is viewed by many Hindus as not appropriate for consumption. As one protestor remarked, "They are the chief killers of the cow." Other protestors see McDonald's as a symbol of the exploitation of the world's poor by rich American multinationals. Faced with the difficulties of product acceptance, low purchasing power among consumers, and the ever-present potential of political conflict, McDonald's must decide if further expansion in India is a good investment.

1. Find the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

устранять барьеры для развития торговли, испытывать жестокий кризис, вводить ограничения, ослабить ограничения, представлять большую проблему, снижать тарифы, находиться (в каком- либо месте), испытывать трудности;

важные изменения, многонациональная корпорация, основной продукт (в меню), низкая покупательная способность, уязвимое положение, потребление, потребители, предложение товара, значительный процент, на душу населения.

2. Translate into Russian:

to represent a challenge; to experience a severe crisis; to reduce tariffs; to remove barriers to trade; to loosen restrictions; to be located; to impose restrictions; to experience difficulties;

significant percentage; major changes; consumers; a multinational; consumption; primary product; vulnerable position; low purchasing power; per capita; product offerings.


  1. Match the following:

1. big a. crisis

2. significant b. business

3. severe c. percentage

4. major d. position

5. reduced e. challenge

6. brisk f. changes

7. vulnerable g. tariffs


4. Say whether these statements are true or false:

1. The McDonald brothers did not realize that India represented a big challenge, otherwise they would not have entered the Indian market.

2. The McDonald brothers did their best to follow the advice “think globally and act locally”.

3. The economic and political environment in India contributed heavily to a successful operation of McDonald’s in India.

4. McDonald’s menu in India was culturally correct.

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