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Переведите предложения, содержащие всевозможные формы причастий: Participle I, Participle II, Perfect Participle Active, Perfect Participle Passive.
1. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechanical parts for their operation.
2. The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from a storage medium is called the access time.
3. Being not visible software makes possible the effective operation of computer system.
4. Having invented magnetic tapes the Germans used them as the secondary storage medium.
5. When properly programmed computers do not make computational errors.
6. Having been introduced in the early 1960s magnetic disc storage has replaced magnetic tape storage.
7. The control unit interpreting instructions is one of the important parts of any computer system.
8. Data recorded in the form of magnetized dots can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits.
9. As contrasted with magnetic tapes magnetic discs can perform both sequential and random processing.
10. While having no moving mechanical parts electronic memories can transfer data at very high speed.
LESSON № 8
1. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:
Data and instructions must enter he data processing system, and information must leave it. These operations are performed by input and output (I/O) units that link the computer to its external environment.
The I/O environment may be human-related or human-independent. A remote banking terminal is an example of a human-related input environment, and a printer is an example of a device that produces output in a human-readable format. An example of a human-independent input environment is a device that measures traffic flow. A reel of magnetic tape upon which the collected data are stored in binary format is an example of a human-independent output.
Input-Output Interfaces. Data enter input units in forms that depend upon the particular device used. For example, data are entered from a keyboard in a manner similar to typing, and this differs from the way that data are entered by a bar-code scanner. However, regardless of the forms in which they receive their inputs all input devices must provide a computer with data that are transformed into the binary codes that the primary memory of the computer is designed to accept. This transformation is accomplished by units called I/O interfaces. Input interfaces are designed to match the unique physical or electrical characteristics of input devices to the requirements of the computer system. Similarly, when output is available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adapt the output to the external environment. These I/O interfaces are also called channels or input-output processors (IOP).
The major differences between devices are the media that they use and the speed with which they are able to transfer data to or from primary storage.
Input-Output Device Speed. Input-output devices can be classified as high-speed, medium-speed and low-speed. The devices are grouped according to their speed. It should be noted that the high-sped devices are entirely electronic in their operation or magnetic media that can be moved at high speed. Those high-speed devices are both input and output devices and are used as secondary storage. The low-speed devices are those with complex mechanical motion or operate at the speed of a human operator. The medium-speed devices are those that fall between – they tend to have mechanical moving parts which are more complex than the high-speed devices but not as complex as the low-speed.
High-speed devices: magnetic discs, magnetic tape.
Medium-speed devices: card readers, line printers, page printers, computer output microfilms, magnetic diskette, optical character readers, optical mark readers, visual displays.
Low-speed devices: bar-code readers, character printers, keyboard input devices, plotters, voice recognition and response units.
Environment- среда, окружение, режим работы
Human-related- взаимосвязанный с человеком
Human-independent- независимый от человека
Remote terminal- удаленный терминал
Reel of magnetic tape- бобина с магнитной лентой
Input-output interface- интерфейс (сопряжение, место стыковки) ввода-вывода
Scan- просматривать, сканировать
Bar-code scanner / bar code reader- устройство считывания штрих-кода
Regardless of- несмотря на, независимо от
To match characteristics- сопоставлять параметры
Similarly- подобным образом, аналогично
To fall between- падать, попадать в интервал между
Card reader- устройство считывания карты
Line printer- построчный принтер
Page printer- принтер с постраничной печатью
Character printer- принтер с посимвольной печатью
Optical printer reader- оптическое считывающее устройство текста
Optical mark reader- оптическое считывающее устройство знаков
Visual display- визуальный индикатор
Keyboard input device- клавишное устройство ввода
Voice recognition and response unit- устройство распознавания голоса и реагирования
2. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы.
1. What is the purpose of input and output devices?
2. What types of input-output devices do you know?
3. Why are data transformed into a binary code while entering the input device?
4. What is an I/O interface?
5. What are the major differences between the various I/O devices?
6. What types of I/O devices tend to be high-speed devices?
7. What types of devices tend to be low-speed devices?
Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний.
Среда устройства ввода-вывода, система обработки информации, связан с человеком, независим от человека, удаленный банковский терминал, бобина с магнитной лентой, двоичный формат, интерфейс ввода-вывода, устройство считывания штрих-кода, сопоставлять параметры, основная память, вторичная память, низкоскоростные устройства.
Составьте аннотацию к тексту «Input-output environment», используя определенные клише.
Переведите предложения, содержащие независимый причастный оборот.
1. Data being accessed randomly, semiconductor memories are called random access memory (RAM).
2. The information capacity of a single bit being limited to two alternatives, code is based on combination of bits.
3. Primary storage having similarity to a function of the human brain, the storage is also called memory.
4. An electron leaving the surface, the metal becomes positively charged.
5. Computer system architecture being organized around the primary storage unit, all instructions must pass through it.
6. Computer system architecture is organized around the primary storage unit, all instructions passing through it.
7. Electromechanical memories depend on moving mechanical parts, their data access time being longer than is that of electronic memories.
8. For this reason most computer systems use electronic memory for primary storage, electromechanical memory being used for secondary storage.
9. Large capacity tape devices are used with large data processing systems, cassettes and cartridges being applied with small systems.
10. The CPU controls the operation of the entire system, commands being issued to other parts of the system.
LESSON № 9
1. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:
There are several devices used for inputting information into the computer: a keyboard, some coordinate input devices, such as manipulators (a mouse, a track ball), touch panels and graphical plotting tables, scanners, digital cameras, TV tuners, sound cards.
When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to transfer information from the user to the computer was the keyboard. It enables inputting numerical and text data. A standard keyboard has 104 keys and three more ones informing about the operating mode of light indicators in the upper right corner.
Later when the more advanced graphics became to develop, user found that a keyboard did not provide the design capabilities of graphics and text representation on the display. There appeared manipulators, a mouse and a track ball, that are usually used while operating with graphical interface. Each software program uses these buttons differently.
The mouse is an optic-mechanical input device. The mouse has three or two buttons which control the cursor movement across the screen. The mouse provides the cursor control thus simplifying user’s orientation on the display. The mouse’s primary functions are to help the user draw, point and select images on his computer display by moving the mouse across the screen.
In general software programs require to press one or more buttons, sometimes keeping them depressed or double-click them to issue changes in commands and to draw or to erase images. When you move the mouse across a flat surface, the ball located on the bottom side of the mouse turns two rollers. One is tracking the mouse’s vertical movements; the other is tracking horizontal movements. The rotating ball glides easily, giving the user good control over the textual and graphical images.
In portable computers touch panels or touch pads are used instead of manipulators. Moving a finger along the surface of the touch pad is transformed into the cursor movement across the screen.
Graphical plotting tables (plotters) find application in drawing and inputting manuscript texts. You can draw, add notes and signs to electronic documents by means of a special pen. The quality of graphical plotting tables is characterized by permitting capacity that is the number of lines per inch, and their capability to respond to the force of pen pressing.
Scanner is used for optical inputting of images (photos, pictures, slides) and texts and converting them into the computer form.
Digital video cameras have been spread recently. They enable getting video images and photos directly in digital computer format. Digital cameras give possibility to get high quality photos.
Sound cards produce sound conversation from analog to digital form. They are able to synthesize sounds. Special game-ports and joysticks are widely used in computer games.
Manipulator- манипулятор, блок обработки
Track ball- трекбол
Touch panel- сенсорная панель
Graphic plotting tables- графические планшеты
Sound card- звуковая карта (плата)
Enable- разрешать, позволять, допускать
Operating mode- режим работы
Keep buttons depressed- удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии
Double-click- двойное нажатие
Erase images- удалить, стереть изображение
By means of- посредством
Permitting capacity- разрешающая способность
2. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What devices are used for inputting information into the computer?
2. What was the most common device in early personal computers?
3. What is the function of a keyboard?
4. Why do many users prefer manipulators to a keyboard?
5. How does the mouse operate?
6. What is its function?
7. What role does the ball on the bottom of the mouse play?
8. What is used in portable computers instead of manipulators?
9. What is the touch pad’s principle of operation?
10. Where do graphical plotting tables find application?
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