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Past time: past simple, past continuous, past perfect simple, past perfect continuous, would, used to/be/get used to
( Past simple )
· You can also use did in past simple statements for emphasis.
ü 'Why didn't you win your match yesterday?" – I did win. Who told you I didn't?'
ü We lost 5-0 but at least we did get into the final.
( Past continuous )
Form: statement: I/he/she/it was playing... You/we/they were playing ...
negative: I/he/she/it wasn't playing... You/we/they weren't playing...
question: Was I/he/she/it playing... ? Were you/we/they playing... ?
|Actions happening at a particular moment in the past||At five o'clock, Iwas reading my new book.|
|Temporary situations in the past||Greg was living in London at the time.|
|Annoying past habits (usually with always)||When we were young, my brother was always borrowing my toys.|
|Actions in progress over a period of time||Daniel was playing video games all morning yesterday.|
|Two actions in progress at the same time||Were Ulla and her friends playing Monopoly while we wereplaying Draughts?|
|Background information in a story||The sun was shining and the birds were singing. Lisa opened the window and I looked out.|
• When one action in the past interrupts another action in progress, we use the past simple and the past continuous together.
ü I was playing on my computer when it suddenly crashed.
• Do not use the past continuous for regular or repeated actions in the past.
ü When we were on holiday, we played volleyball every day.
• Do not use stative verbs in continuous tenses. See Unit 1, page 7.
( Past perfect simple )
Form: had + past participle
|Situations and states before the past||We'd lived next to the gym for a couple of months before I decided to join.|
|Completed actions before a moment in the past||I'd alreadybought the computer game when I saw it was cheaper in another shop.|
|Completed actions where the important thing is the result at a moment in the past||We didn't feel like playing Scrabble because we had just finished a long game of Monopoly.|
• There is often little or no difference in meaning between the past perfect simple and the past simple.
ü We'd lived next to the gym for a couple of months before I decided to join.
ü We lived next to the gym for a couple of months before I decided to join.
• After you have used the past perfect simple once, we often then use the past simple instead of continuing to use the past perfect.
ü I had already had one flying lesson, which was great fun, and I knew immediately that I wanted to get my pilot's licence.
• Phrases such as It was the first/second/etc time... are followed by the past perfect simple.
ü It was the second time I'd been on a plane.
( Past perfect continuous )
Form statement: I/you/he/she/it/we/they had been playing...
negative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn't been playing...
question: Had l/you/he/she/it/we/they been playing... ?
|Actions continuing up to a moment in the past||When you saw us, we had been running for six miles - and we still had a mile to go!|
|Actions stopping just before a moment in the past||Sarah looked tired because she had been exercising all morning.|
( would )
Form: would + bare infinitive
|Past habits, particularly for the distant past||When I was very young, my grandfather would take me to the park to play.|
• Don't often use would in questions or negative statements with this meaning. In negative statements, you can use would never.
ü We would never play games together as a family when I was growing up.
( used to )
Form: used to + bare infinitive
statement: I/you/he/she/it/we/they used to train three times a week.
negative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they didn't use to be good at football.
I/you/he/she/it/we/they never used to be so good at football.
I/you/he/she/it/we/they used not to be good at football.
question: Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they use to play hockey here?
|Past habits and states, particularly for the distant past||My mother used to play a lot of squash before I was born.|
• To talk about a past state, you can use used to, but not would.
ü We used to have a house that was right next to the park.
( be/get used to )
Form: be/get used to + -ing form / noun
|A situation that is familiar or no longer strange||I didn't like being the goalkeeper at first but now I'm used to it.|
• When you want to talk about the process of becoming familiar with something, use get used to
ü I'm gradually getting used to being in a new team.
A Circle the correct word or phrase.
1. I saw / was seeing Maria for the first time at Ray's birthday party.
2. Richard watched / was watching TV when the phone rang.
3. When we were on holiday, we went / were going to the cafe almost every day.
4. Denise practised / was practising the song every day until she could sing it perfectly.
5. The phone was engaged when I called. Who did you talk / were you talking to?
6. Mr Connors owned / was owning two houses and a villa in the south of France.
7. I did / was doing my homework as soon as I got home from school.
8. A car came round the corner and I jumped / was jumping out of the way.
9. When my dad met my mum, he worked / was working as a bus driver.
10. I got / was getting up at six o'clock every morning last week!
11. My cousin and I played / were playing on the computer when there was a power cut.
12. No, that's not right. I did pass / was passing the test. I got a B.
В Complete using the correct form of the verb in brackets.
1. Where ________ (you / go) when I saw you on the bus last night?
2. ________ (you / enjoy) the film?
3. When we shared a room, Zoe ________ (always / take) my things. It was so annoying!
4. When I went to get the tickets, I realised I________ (not / have) any money.
5. When I was young, we ________ (go) to France every year on holiday.
6. Elvis ________ (become) famous for the song Blue Suede Shoes.
7. When you rang last night, I ________ (work) in the garden so I didn't hear the phone.
8. I ________ (hear) from Davina last night. She says hello.
9. The old man ________ (appear) to be very tired and he slowly sat down.
10. We ________ (throw) a surprise party for my brother last Saturday.
С Circle the correct word or phrase.
Thanks for your letter. I (1) just left / had just left for school when I saw the postman and he (2) gave / had given it to me. It was really funny! I (3) read / had read it during maths and it (4) made / had made me laugh. I almost (5) got / had got in trouble! Anyway, I'm excited because I (6) had / had had my first judo lesson yesterday. I (7) was / had been late for the lesson because when I (8) got / had got there, I suddenly realised I (9) left / had left my judo suit at home! So I (10) went / had gone all the way home and when I (11) got / had got back, the lesson (12) already began / had already begun. The instructor was really nice, though, and I (13) learned / hadlearned how to do some basic throws. Can't wait till next time!
What about you and your taekwondo? The last time I (14) spoke / had spoken to you, you (15) talked / had talked about giving it up. What (16) did you decide / had you decided? I think that's all for now. My mum and I are going shopping shortly, so I'd better post this.
Speak to you soon. Love,
D Complete using the past perfect simple or past perfect continuous of the verbs in the box. You may need to use a negative form.
eat • stay • wait • know • write • see • listen • get • have • run
1. By the time he died, Beethoven _________ nine symphonies.
2. We chose the Hotel Rio because we _________ there before.
3. We _________ for over an hour when the train finally arrived.
4. I was completely out of breath because I _________.
5. I _________ the film before, so I knew how it ended.
6. When he got married, I _________ Chris for about two years.
7. Johnson _________ ready for the race for six months and finally the bigmoment came.
8. Vivian _________ computer lessons for very long so she wasn't sure how to use the Internet.
9. Holly _________ oysters before, so she wasn't sure what to do with them.
10. I _________ to my new CD for a few minutes when the CD player started making a funny noise.
E Choose the correct answer.
1. My brother and I _________ swimming almost every day last summer.
A went В had been going С were going D had gone
2. We _________ when someone knocked at the door.
A talked В had talked С were talking D were talked
3. When the robbery happened, the security guard _________.
A slept В was sleeping С had slept D was slept
4. Jack _________ chess before so I showed him what to do.
A hadn't been playing В didn't play Сwasn't playing D hadn't played
5. I wasn't sure how Belinda would react because I _________ her long.
A didn't knowВ wasn't knowing С hadn't been knowing D hadn't known
6. Ian _________ at the factory long when he was made a manager.
A hadn't been working В wasn't working С didn't work D wasn't worked
7. I wanted to say goodbye to Jerry, but he _________ .
A was already left В already left С had already been leaving Dhad already left
8. When we got to the airport, I realized I _________ my passport at home!
A was left В had left С left D had been leaving
F Circle the incorrect words or phrases and rewrite them correctly.
1. I had paint on my shoes because I'd painted my bedroom all morning. (I'd been painting)
2. I missed the start of the film because I buy popcorn.
3. It was obvious that Bill has worked because he was very tired when I saw him.
4. We had been tidying the garden for hours and I was needing a rest.
5. When the bus was arriving, we missed it because we were talking.
6. During the Christmas holiday, I was eating too much and watching too much TV!
7. Julian was learning all about computer games by the time he was six.
8. My grandfather was owning a hotel by the beach until he sold it last year.
G Circle the correct word or phrase.
1. When she was a girl, my mum would / used to live in a village.
2. I really can't be / get used to having a new baby brother.
3. People would / are used to die of diseases in the past that we can cure today.
4. There would / used to be a cinema on this corner, but they knocked it down.
5. It was strange at first, but I'm used to play / playing the bagpipes now.
6. Didn't you use to / be used to have blonde hair?
7. Christopher was being / getting used to the idea of joining the army.
8. People never would / used to be so worried about crime in this area.
H Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
1.People walked more fifty years ago than they do now. would
Fifty years ago, _____________________ than they do now.
2.My parents wouldn't let me stay out late when I was young. used
My parents _____________________ let me stay out late when I was young.
3.Did you know that Carol played basketball for her country? to
Did you know that Carol _____________________ basketball for her country?
4.Sending messages around the world instantly is no longer unusual. got
We _____________________ messages around the world instantly.
5.When he was a teacher, my dad often used to get home quite late. would
When he was a teacher, my dad _____________________ quite late.
6.Do you think you could learn to live without your mobile phone? used
Do you think you could _____________________ without your mobile phone?
7.In the past, people wouldn't go as far away on holiday as they do today. use
In the past, people _____________________ as far away on holiday asthey do today.
8.This town has a lot more cinemas than it had in the past. used
This town _____________________ so many cinemas.
I Find the extra word in each line.
1 __________ Childhood would used to be quite different from what it is today. Young
2 __________ people didn't use not to have so much leisure time. Today's children may
3 __________ complain about their schoolwork, but our great-grandparents would to go
4 __________ out to work at a very young age. They had often been left school by
5 __________ the time they were fourteen and were found a job. This meant that they
6 __________ have had little free time for hobbies or leisure activities, especially when
7 __________ they had been working hard all day. Of course, they got themselves used
8 __________ to working long hours eventually, but it would meant that they had to
9 __________ grow up very quickly. Today, we are got used to having some free time to
10 __________ do things we enjoy, a luxury people in the past rarely were had.
J Write one word in each gap.
THE NIGHT BEFORE
Jane lay awake. She had (1) __________ preparing for the next day (2) __________ a long time and now she couldn't sleep. Her team (3) __________ playing the local champions atwater polo in the final and Jane was the captain. She (4) __________ feeling the pressure.
She turned over and remembered how she (5) __________ learned to swim. Her father hadtaught her. They (6) __________ go to the local pool every day after school and her father (7) __________ to show her what to do. She hadn't liked the water at first, but she soon (8) __________ used to it. She learned quickly and joined the water polo team. She had (9) __________ their youngest member!
She quickly got used to scoring goals and (10) __________ under pressure, but tomorrow wasdifferent. It was the biggest match of her life. She closed her eyes again and tried to get to sleep. 'I (11) __________ used to have problems sleeping,' she thought to herself. 'But then again, I didn't
(12) __________ to be the captain of the team.' She watched the clock change slowly and knew that it was going to be a long night.
Unit 4 Vocabulary
Hobbies, Sport and Games
Topic vocabulary in contrast see page 186 for definitions
|pitch / track / court / course / ring / rink||umpire / referee||sport / athletics|
|win / beat / score||final / finale / end / ending||interval/half time|
|play/game||bat / stick / rod / racket||draw / equal|
|spectator / viewer||amateur / professional||competitor / opponent|
Phrases and collocations
|best||make the best of sth; do your best; the best at sth/doing|
|chance||have/take/get a chance to do; have a chance of doing; some/little/etc chance of (your) doing; the chances of (your) doing; take a chance (on sth); chance of a lifetime|
|go||your go; have a go|
|height||in height; afraid of heights; height of sth|
|mad||mad about/on sth/sb/doing; go/become mad|
|pleasure||take pleasure in sth/doing; gain/get pleasure from sth/doing|
|side||(on) the opposite side; (on) the far side; side with sb; on the winning/losing side|
|talent||have a talent (for sth/doing); talent contest|
|time||on time; (just) in time; the whole time; high/about time; take your time (doing); take time to do; sth takes up (your) time; spend time doing; spend time on; at/for a certain time; time passes; find time to do; make/ find time for; for the time being; have a good/nice time (doing); tell the time; free/spare/leisure time|
|turn||turn (a)round/away;turn sth over; in turn;take turns;take it in turn(s) (to do);yourturn (to do)|
|compete against/with sb; compete for/in sth||listen to sth/sb|
|concentrate on sth/doing||love sth/sb/doing; love to do|
|difficult to do; find sth difficult; find it difficult to do||mean to do; it/this means that; it/this means sth/doing|
|fond of sth/sb/doing||prefer to do (rather than [to] do); prefer sth (rather than sth); prefer sth/doing (to sth/doing)|
|free to do; free from/of sth; free for sth||stop sth/doing; stop to do; stop sb from doing|
|interested in sth/doing||sure/certain make/be sure/certain that; sure/certain to do; be sure/certain of sth|
involve sth/doing; involved in sth/doing
|allow disallow, allowance, allowable||fortune misfortune, (un)fortunate(ly)||medal medallist, medallion|
|associate disassociate, association, (un)associated||interest (un)interesting(ly)||oppose opposition, opponent, opposite, opposing|
|compete competition, competitor, competitive(ly)||know knowledge, (un)knowledgeable||practice practise, (im)practical(ly)|
|enjoy enjoyment, enjoyable||lose lost, loss||train retrain, trainer|
|equip equipment, equipped|| |
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