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Exercise 8.6. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.

1) Computer is an electronic device therefore hardware is a system of electronic devices.

2) The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer process­ing.

3) Scanner is used to input graphics only.

4) The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instruc­tions provided to the computer.

5) CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on paper.

6) User is unable to change the contents of ROM.

7) 5.25" floppy disks are used more often because they are flexible and have more capacity than 3.5" disks.

5) Printer is a processing hardware because its pur­pose is to show the information produced by the system.

6) Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.

7) The purpose of storage hardware is to store com­puter instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve them when needed for process­ing.

Exercise8.7. Give definitions to the following us­ing the vocabulary


2) ROM

3) Floppy-disk


5) Printer

6) Modem

7) Motherboard

8) Hard disk

9) Keyboard

10) Sound-card

Exercise 8.8. Which of the following is Hardware:

1) program

2) mouse


4) printer

5) modem

6) command

7) port

8) cursor or the pointer

9) keyboard

10) character

Exercise 8.9. Match the following:

1) процессор

2) клавиатура

3) мышь

4) дискета

5) «винчестер»

6) модем

7) экран

8) ПЗУ

9) ОЗУ

a) nonvolatile, non-modifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

b) the part of a television or computer on which a pic­ture is formed or information is displayed.

c) rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer programs and relatively large amounts of data.

d) an electronic device that makes possible he trans­mission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

e) a set of keys, usually arranged in tiers, for operat­ing a typewriter, typesetting machine, computer termi­nal, or the like.

f) volatile computer memory, used for creating, load­ing, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data; main memory.

g) central processing unit: the key component of a com­puter system, containing the circuitry necessary to in­terpret and execute program instructions.

h) a palm-sized device equipped with one or more but­tons, used to point at and select items on a computer dis­play screen and for controlling the cursor by means of analogous movement on a nearby surface.

i) a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with mag­netic material, for storing computer data and program.

Questions for group discussion:

1) Without what parts computer is unable to work?

2) What is the most expensive part of the hardware?

3) What other hardware devices do you know? What are they for? Do you know how to use them?


A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software — programs for directing the opera­tion of a computer or electronic data.

Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose machine which requires specific software to per­form a given task. Computers can input, calculate, com­pare, and output data as information. Software deter­mines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: sys­tem software and applications software.

System software controls standard internal compu­ter activities. An operating system, for example, is a col­lection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the sys­tems programs is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software can be brought in.

System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coor­dinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a pe­ripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver program which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you «teach» your mainboard to «understand» the newly attached part.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on mar­keting research strategies trying to do their best to at­tract more users (buyers) to their software. As the pro­ductivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one program to make software inter­face look more attractive to the user. These class of pro­grams is the most numerous and perspective from the

marketing point of view.

Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. Dur­ing the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.


aid — помощь

to attach — присоединять

control — управление

developer — разработчик

equipment — оборудование

general-purpose — общего назначения

internal — внутренний

mainboard — материнская плата

memory capacity — вместимость памяти

peripheral — периферийный

regard — отношение

regardless — несмотря на, безотносительно,

security — безопасность

specific — конкретный, определенный

to boot — загружать

to check — проверять

to complete — совершать, завершать

to conduct — проводить

to develop — развивать, проявлять

to direct — управлять, руководить

to handle — управлять, обращаться с

to install — устанавливать, встраивать, инсталли­ровать

to provide with — обеспечивать чем-либо

to require — требовать

to secure — обеспечивать безопасность

to transfer — переводить, переносить

Web-browser — «браузер» (программа, позволяю­щая пользователю искать и считывать информацию с глобальной электронной сети Internet)

General understanding

1. What is software?

2. In what two basic groups software (programs) could be divided?

3. What is system software for?

4. What is an operating system — a system software or application software?

5. What is a «driver»?

6. What is application software?

7. What is application software used for?

8. What is the tendency in application software mar­ket in the recent years?

9. What is the application of the communication soft­ware?

Exercise 8.10. Which of the following is Software:

1. Program

2. Mouse

3. CPU

4. Word processor

5. Modem

6. Web-browser

7. Operating system

8. Scanner

9. Printer

10. Display

Exercise 8.11. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text:

1) Computer programs only instruct hardware how to handle data storage.

2) System software controls internal computer activi­ties.

3) System software is very dependable on the type of application software being used.

4) The information about memory capacity, the model of the processor and disk drives are unavailable for sys­tem software.

5) The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for Floppy-disk driving.

6) It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new piece of hardware.

7) Software developers tend to make their products very small and with poor interface to save computer re­sources.

8) Communication software is in great demand now because of the new advances in communication technolo­gies.

9) Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument.

10) Web-browsers is the class of software for electronic communication through the network.

Exercise 8.12. Find English equivalents in the text:

1) Программное обеспечение определяет порядок выполнения операций.

2) Прикладные программы выполняют поставлен­ную вами конкретную задачу (удовлетворяют вашу потребность).

3) Этот класс программ — самый многочисленный и перспективный с точки зрения маркетинга.

4) Системные программы предназначены для кон­кретных устройств компьютерной системы.

5) Устанавливая драйвер, вы < учите» систему «по­нимать» вновь присоединенное устройство.

6) Когда компьютер впервые включается, одна из системных программ должна быть загружена в его па­мять.

7) Развитие систем электронной коммуникации за последние пять лет стимулировало производство со­ответствующих программных продуктов возрастаю­щим числом компаний-разработчиков.

Exercise 8.13. Give definitions to the following using the vocabulary:

1) Software

2) Driver

3) Application software

4) Operating system

5) Communication software

6) Computer

7) Peripheral device

8) Operating system

Questions for group discussion:

1) What do you think is more expensive — hardware or software?

2) Has anyone in your group ever purchased software? Why do you think piracy (audio, video, computer soft­ware) still exists?



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