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Look at the text title and complete the sentences according to their possible occurrence in the text.

There might be a new solution to...

It's unlikely that....

But later in life, when....

We're less and less active, and without....

Our goal, with our science and our research is to try to ….

3 a). Form abstract nouns from these verbs

density   age  
gravitate   stimulate  
solve   return  


3 b). Fill in the gaps with the help of expressions above:

There are hundreds of points that should be taken into consideration while you are making decisions about what to do after _________________ to university.

  1. The greater the amount of _____ that an investor is willing to take on, the greater the potential return.
  2. Gravitation, or______, is a natural phenomenon in which objects with mass attract one another.
  3. Mental and physical _____ are vital to the well-being of all people, especially elderly adults.
  4. A recent U.S. Army study concluded sleep ________ reduces emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills.
  5. Because a material that expands will take up a larger volume, its ______ will decrease.
  6. This population ________ can be seen as a success story for public health policies and for socio-economic development.
  7. Are there any immediate __________ to the problem of global warming effecting marine life eco-systems at hand?


4 a). Match the words

1) human travel technology
2) bone density osteoporosis
3) zero gravity Space Station
4) age-related ageing
5) the International skeleton
6) rapid loss
7) stimulate to Mars

4 b). Fill in the gaps with the help of the elements or whole expressions given above.

1) The Perfect Chair ’s ergonomic design and _____________________ positions the body in a neutral position that counteracts gravity’s adverse effects.

2) Although no official deadline for achieving ____________________________ has been set, a mission to our closest neighbour is imminent, according to some scientists.

3) From age 70, ________________________________________ becomes more common in men and can cause spontaneous fractures and increased risk of fractures following falls

4) A method for the prophylaxis or treatment of ________________________________ in an animal or human includes the administering to the animal or human an effective amount of necessary vitamins and mineral.

5) The _______________________________ of the population and the strong desires for working by the retired old has become a serious issue on the Japanese pension management

6) Perhaps to _________________your __________________ means to prevent diabetes. Certainly bone producing cells in mice can pump out a powerful signal that blocks belly fat, and keeps the blood sugar regulated.

Which is not related to bones?

femur, thighbone, fracture, spleen, osteoporosis

Which of the following is not a synonym to” work”?

a) stint, job, task, pastime

b) make up sentences with the expressions: to set a stint, without stint

In Class

Listen to the Webcast New technology may prevent space travel bone damage and do the exercises.

What do you know about such disease as osteoporosis?

Listen and decide “who is who”?


Name Position
1) Tom Tilley US inventor
2) Clint Rubin presenter
3) Elizabeth Jackson reporter

C – Comprehension Test 1


1 The new technology is currently being A used in the US B tested in the US C developed in the US   2 The danger to health can increase dramatically A with natural ageing B without sunshine C with physical overload  
3 Crew members on the ISS lost up A to a percent of bone mass per month B to two per cent of bone mass per month. C to two per cent of bone mass per year 4 The round trip to Mars would take   A several years B 70 years C 17 years  
5 An astronaut being deprived of gravity is A rapidly putting on weight B rapidly ageing C deprived of communication with his friends 6 Our skeleton wastes away   A without vitamin C B without the proper physical load C when we sleep  
7 The technology is based on   A artificial skeleton B nutrition of skeleton C mechanical signals into the skeleton   8 The critical period of staying in outer space is not more A than 90 days B 6 months C 16 months  
9 Astronauts are putting their skeletons A at a higher risk of softening B at a higher risk or fracture. C at a higher level of flexibility 10 In the case of fracture on the Mars the problem will be the lack of   A time to recover B medical service C first-aid kit

B – Comprehension Test 2

Part 1

1) What health problem is urgent for those astronauts who travel in zero gravity?

2) What disease are its symptoms like?

3) Where is the new technology currently being tested?

4) How do the signals sent to body affect the astronaut’s bones?

Part 2

TOM TILLEY: It's unlikely that an astronaut returning from their latest ________on the space station will start breaking______________________.

But later in life, when normal _____________________starts___________, the danger can increase dramatically.

An article published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research found that _______ members on the International Space Station lost up to _____________of bone mass per month.

This is one of the human related factors that's stopping mankind from making the trip to Mars which would take several years for the ___________________.


Part 3

US inventor, Professor Clint Rubin, is working __________________that may solve the problem.

CLINT RUBIN: Think of an astronaut, that's basically being _______________weight bearing, or deprived of gravity, as a model for ________________________

So we've just decided, as____________, we're less and less active, and without the proper mechanical signals to the skeleton, our skeleton begins to _______________________.

Now all of a sudden, put yourself up in space, where essentially you're in a vacuum of mechanical signals, you're just not _________________your skeleton at all, that in essence, it's _____________________accelerated ageing.

And so, our goal, with our science and our research is to try to put those mechanical signals back into the astronauts' skeleton, so that in reality they're not going through this rapid ______________________.


Part 4

TOM TILLEY: So how does this new technology work?

CLINT RUBIN: The technology is based on _____________very, very small mechanical ______________the skeleton, the same sort of things that their ____________would do when they're active.

So the astronauts, when using the ______________for 10 minutes per day, would basically be harnessed to it, like with a very, very _____________spring.

And they'd sit there and they'd work on their __________________, or read a book while their skeleton________________________________.


Part 5


TOM TILLEY: How long are some of these astronauts spending in the space stations?

CLINT RUBIN: So these astronauts basically are... some of them have been up there for ____________________. But typically, once they're there for greater than 90 days, or up to six months, they're sort of risking... they're putting their skeletons at a higher level of risk of ______________.

So again, the challenge that you've got when you're thinking about a _________________ round trip to Mars, is that what happens if you're losing two per cent of your bone per month, that by the time you get to Mars, and the challenge of Mars' _____________, that if you happen to trip and break your ____________, or your _______________________ while you're up on Mars, that it's quite a __________ to the nearest hospital.

ELIZABETH JACKSON: Professor Clint Rubin from the State University of New York speaking to Tom Tilley.


A – Comprehension Test 3

1) What health problem is the most urgent for those astronauts who travel in zero gravity?

2) What disease are its symptoms like?

3) Where is the new technology currently being tested?

4) How do the signals sent to body affect the astronaut’s bones?

5) What is the challenge of three-year trip to Mars that Professor Clint Rubin refers to

6) What is the critical time of spending in the space station? Why?

7) What can the astronauts be preoccupied with while their skeleton is being stimulated?

8) How often should astronauts use the device? What is the device like?

9) How does this new technology work?

10) What is believed to be the means of accelerated ageing?

11) What happens to our skeleton when we age?

12) What things are astronauts deprived of when they are in the orbit?

13) How long would a round trip to Mars take? What is the human related factor that stops mankind

from travelling to Mars?

14) What percent of their bone mass did the crew members lose per month according to

the article published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research?

Text 11.



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