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VI. Translate sentences paying attention to the word “earn”.
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1. He now earns £ 250, 000 a year.
2. Henceforth he would earn his bread in the sweat of his face.
3. He earns interest on rates.
4. The deposit currently earns £ 710 per annum.
5. Palm oil earned Malaysia some £ 344 million in 1979.
6. She earns great esteem among her colleagues.
7. Bill earned the reputation of a good engineer.
8. They earned a good rest.
VII.Put questions to the parts of the sentences given in bold type.
1.Products are sold directly from the producer to the consumer.
2.The supplier uses an agent to channel his goods.
3.Insurance is often sold through agents such as banks and through brokers.
4.Retail mail order takes two forms.
5.The method of distribution will depend upon the type of market.
6.The marketing managers in firms are separated from their final consumers by geographical distance.
7.Many manufacturers have little direct contact with the retailers.
VIII.Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.
To teach, to spend, to run, to put, to mean, to lend, to keep, to hold, to go, to find.
IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms.
1. Lay cards on the table - Открыть карты
2. Earn one's crust - Зарабатывать на кусок хлеба
I. Read and translate the text.
There are three principal types of wholesalers used by manufacturers to distribute their products to retailers or industrial users. These are the merchant wholesaler, the manufacturer’s sales branch, and the agent or broker. In deciding which distribution system is best for their products, manufacturers analyze the alternatives in the light of the services to be provided and the target market they wish to reach.
Merchant wholesalers perform several important functions for manufacturers. They purchase merchandise from manufacturers, take title to the goods, and assume the risks associated with selling them. The merchant wholesaler stores the product, delivers it to retail or industrial customers, handles the collection of accounts, and may provide service facilities and sales promotion.
Jobbers, drop shippers and cash-and-carry wholesalers are the wholesalers that normally take title to goods as they move through the channel of distribution. However, these wholesalers usually do not provide all the services made available by the merchant wholesaler.
A manufacturer’s sales branch or office may be desirable if the product is complicated and requires considerable technical knowledge. Sales branches are owned and operated by manufacturers separate from their factories. They may or may not carry inventories from which orders are shipped directly. The sales branch enables the manufacturer to control the selection of retail or industrial customers. When sales branches are used, the manufacturer performs the wholesale functions of storage, shipping, credit financing, and servicing.
Agents and brokers make up a third class of wholesalers. They usually do not take title to goods but negotiate the purchase or sale of merchandise. For this service they are paid a fee or commission. They may represent specialized product lines, as in the case of processed foods brokers or building supplies manufacturer’s agents. Customarily the agent or broker is in close communication with potential customers and is able to provide information on the demand for goods at any time. This permits the manufacturer to avoid the expense of a sales force. A large area can be covered by a network of independent sales agents.
Commentary and Notes to the text
1. sales branch торговое отделение промышленной фирмы
2. take title to goods брать [принимать] право собственности на товар
3. assume a risk - брать на себя риск
4. merchandise ['mɜ ː ʧ (ə )ndaɪ z] товары
5. jobber - (мелкий) оптовый торговец (покупающий товары у крупных оптовиков и перепродающий их розничным торговцам); оптовая фирма, джоббер (фирма, закупающая крупные партии товаров с целью перепродажи)
6. drop shipper -посредник, который собирает заказы от розничных продавцов на определенный товар и организует закупку у производителя; обычно не осуществляет складирование и хранение товаров, а только организует поставку
7. cash-and-carry –продажа за наличный расчет без доставки
8. inventory ['ɪ nv(ə )nt(ə )rɪ ] инвентаризация, учёт товара, наличные товары
9. ship- перевозить (груз, товар), отправлять (различными видами транспорта)
10. processed food бакалея, бакалейные товары
11. sales force- сотрудники отдела продаж, менеджеры по продажам; торговый персонал, торговый штат, штат продавцов
II. Answer the following questions.
1. What types of wholesalers are used by manufacturers to distribute their products to retailers or industrial users?
2. What functions do merchant wholesalers perform for manufacturers?
3. The merchant wholesaler stores the product, delivers it to retail or industrial customers, doesn’t he?
4. What are the duties of jobbers, drop shippers and cash-and-carry wholesalers?
5. When are sales branches used?
6. Do agents and brokers make up a third class of wholesalers?
7. What are their functions?
III. Translate the word combinations.
Merchant wholesaler, distribution system, target market, service facilities, sales promotion, drop shippers, cash-and-carry wholesalers, wholesale functions,
sales branches, sales force, credit financing, sales agents, market price, sales promotion effort.
IV. Open the brackets and put the verbs in proper form.
1. Wholesalers (use) by manufacturers to distribute their products to retailers.
2. Jobbers, drop shippers (be) the wholesalers that move through the channel of distribution.
3. The merchant wholesaler (store) the product and (deliver) it to retail or industrial customers.
4. Sales branches (operate) by manufacturers separate from their factories.
5. A large area (cover) by a network of independent sales agents.
6. Agents and brokers (pay) a fee or commission for their service.
7. They (be able) to provide information on the demand for goods at any time.
V. Translate sentences with the word “it”.
1. We approved this system of banking. It is more progressive.
2. It is the bookkeeper who prepares a balance sheet.
3. It is our standard of these goods.
4. It is necessary to research this market.
5. It is this method of analysis that helped us so much.
6. It is important that the plan should be fulfilled in time.
7. It is this new system of management that gave the best results.
VI. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Существует три вида оптовиков, которые используются производителями для распределения их продукции розничным торговцам.
2. Оптовики берут на себя риски, связанные с продажей товаров.
3. Менеджеры по продажам осуществляют продажу товаров и услуг путем прямого контакта с потребителями.
4. Посредники собирают заказы от розничных продавцов на определенный товар и организуют закупку у производителя.
5. Агенты и брокеры составляют третий вид оптовиков.
6. Производитель выполняет функции по хранению, транспортировке, кредитному финансированию и обслуживанию.
VII.Translate the sentences paying attention to the construction “to be going to”.
1. The director is going to discuss this issue with his colleagues.
2. What are you going to become in future?
3. The majority of our graduates are going to work as managers.
4. The manufacturer is going to perform the wholesale functions of storage, shipping, credit financing, and servicing.
5. Merchant wholesalers are going to purchase merchandise from manufacturers, take title to the goods, and assume the risks.
6. The wholesaler was going to deliver the product to retail or industrial customers.
7. The manufacturer is going to distribute his products through his own sales personnel to wholesalers.
8. The firm is going to represent a specialized product line as soon as possible.
VIII. Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.
To wear, to stand, to ride, to smell, to make, to fly, to lose, to ring, to break, to choose.
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