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Exercise 33, p. 91: Complete the following sentences, using the Past Perfect Tense (see the patterns above).
(A) 1. He told her that he (buy a TV set the year before). 2. The man at the station said that the train (leave already). 3.Mary told me that she (not get a letter from her son yet). She said that she (not hear from him for some weeks). 4. He understood that he (get off at the wrong station). 5. He said that his parents (always live in the country). 6. I didn't know that she (change her address). 7. He didn't remember how it all (happen). 8.We were sure that she (tell the truth). 9. I saw that the child (catch a cold). 10. She hoped that I (pay for the tickets already). 11. When he woke up next morning and looked out of the window he understood that it (rain heavily during the night).
(B) 1. When we came back, the telegram (arrive already). 2. When I got to the station the train (already leave). 3. The rain (already stop) when we started. 4. When I finished school my elder sister (be a teacher for two years). 5. We (make all the arrangements already) when we learned that he wouldn't come.
(C) 1. I knew her immediately because my brother (describe her to me very well). 2. The militiaman stopped her because she (cross the street in the wrong place). 3. I was not hungry because I (have lunch just an hour before). 4. Nobody knew when he came in because he (enter the house through the back door). 5. I thought he knew English well because he (live in England for some years). 6. It happened to him because he (always be too sure of himself).
(D) 1. As soon as they (take a decision) they could discuss less important questions. 2. After we (make a fire) it became warm. 3. When I (throw out all the old newspapers and magazines) I could arrange my new books nicely on the shelf. 4. After he (pay the money for the plane tickets) he had very little left in his pockets. 5. I met her soon after I (learn the news). 6. When he (finish his work) he went to bed.
Exercise 34, p. 92: Practise the following according to the model.
Model: Mary told us a story she had never (not) told us before.
1.When I was at the Tretyakov Picture Gallery last, I saw some pictures there I —.
2. At their dinner party we met some people we —. 3. I went for a walk and decided to take the road I —. 4. He taught me Judo, in a way nobody —. 5. He showed us the pictures he —. 6. She spoke of something she —. 7. The lecture was very interesting, we heard something we —. 8. The dinner was quite unusual, I ate something —.
Exercise 35, p. 92: Translate the following sentences, using the correct tense form.
(A) 1. Они сказали, что приехали сюда на поезде. 2. Все знали, что они дружат с детства. 3. Мы сказали им, что еще не уладили это дело. 4. По радио объявили, что поезд из Сочи уже прибыл. 5. Он писал, что погода там пасмурная с первого сентября. 6. Сосед по купе сказал, что мы уже проехали мост. 7. Когда поезд тронулся, я понял, что сел не на тот поезд. 8. Врач сказал, что ребенок простудился.
(B) 1. Когда я нашел их дом, уже стемнело. 2. Когда она пришла на собрание, мы уже обсудили первый вопрос. 3. Когда врач пришел, они уже увезли ребенка в больницу. 4. Когда я вернулся из театра, гости уже разошлись (ушли). 5. Когда она приехала в деревню, мы жили там уже неделю. 6. Когда я вернулся в купе, я понял, что мой сосед уже сошел.
(C) 1. В комнате было холодно, потому что всю ночь было открыто окно. 2. Он был взволнован потому, что получил телеграмму из дома. 3. Она получила плохую оценку на экзамене потому, что сделала очень много ошибок. 4. Он не хотел обедать у нас потому, что уже поел в институте. 5. Ему не хватило денег до конца месяца, потому что он купил велосипед.
The Future Perfect Tense
Exercise 36, p. 93: Study the following patterns:
1. They will have done their work by 7 o'clock.
2. By this time tomorrow he will have crossed the channel and will be in England.
3. In 1990 he will have lived in Moscow for twenty years.
4. By the time you come back, he'll have been here for two hours.
Exercise 37, p. 93: Complete the following sentences, using the Future Perfect Tense.
1. By the time he arrives they — (leave). 2. She is ill now. By the first of April she— (be in hospital for three weeks). 3. He has bought this TV set on credit. He — (pay all the money by the 21st of August). 4. How long has she stayed with your family? By the end of the month she —. 5. She has lived here a long time. By 1990 she —. 6. He is still a school boy, but by this time next year he — (leave school).
Exercise 38, p. 93: Translate the following sentences, using the Future Perfect Tense.
1. Я надеюсь, что к концу собрания мы уладим этот вопрос. 2. На будущий год к этому времени он проработает на нашем заводе тридцать лет. 3. К тому времени, когда он приедет, я буду жить на юге уже две недели. 4. К тому времени, когда ты приедешь домой, ты забудешь все, что я говорил тебе. 5. К 1 Мая они уже переедут в новую квартиру. 6. Они закончат строительство школы к началу учебного года.
Exercise 39, pp. 93-94: Open the brackets, using the correct tense form. Explain the use of the tenses:
Mr Sherlock Holmes (sit) one morning at the breakfast table in his room in Baker Street. His friend Dr Watson (stand) near the window, examining a walking stick which a visitor (forget) the day before. “To Dr Mortimer, from his friend," was engraved upon it, with the date "1884". Sherlock Holmes suddenly (turn) to Watson and (say): “The owner of this stick (have) a dog which (be) larger than a terrier and smaller than a mastiff."
"How you (know)?" (ask) Watson in surprise.
"I (examine) that stick carefully and (notice) the marks of a dog’s teeth on it," (answer) Holmes. "They (be) too broad for a terrier and not broad enough for a mastiff. Probably the dog often (carry) the stick behind its master. I think it must be a spaniel, in fact it (be) a spaniel.”
Holmes (leave) the breakfast-table and (stand) near the window as he (say) this. Watson (look) at him in surprise and (ask): "How can you be so sure of that?"
"For the simple reason that I (see) the dog at our door and I (hear) the bell which its master (ring). I wonder why Dr Mortimer (want) to see Mr Sherlock Holmes. Well, we soon (know). Come in," he (add), there (be) a knock at the door.
(After "The Hound of the Baskervilles by A. Conan Doyle)
Perfect Continuous Tense Forms (Present, Past and Future)
Exercise 19, p. 216: Study the following chart.
Exercise 20, p. 217: Ask questions indicated at the end of the sentences.
1. I have been working on the problem for three years. (How long?) 2. We had been walking for hours before we saw the lake. (How long?) 3. It has been raining since morning. (Since when?) 4. I don't want to go out this evening. I've been working in the garden all day. (Who?) 5. We have been making chemical experiments for the past few days. (What experiments?) 6. By the time she comes, he will have been staying at the hotel for two days. (How long?) 7. He said he had been taking English lessons since he was a boy. (Since what time?) 8. You have been hiding from me lately. (Why?) 9. For the past few minutes he has been trying to make her understand that she is wrong. (What?)
Exercise 21, p. 217: Use the Present Perfect Continuous tense form in the following sentences, make use of the adverbial modifiers suggested in the brackets (watch the change in meaning).
Model 1: He has already written this letter. (since morning)
He has been writing this letter since morning.
1.They have already built the theatre. (for two years). 2. We have discussed all these problems (the whole month). 3. I've helped her with her work. (since she came to this office). 4. He has just read this book. (all week). 5. She has taught them how to do it. (for years). 6. What has happened here? (while I have been away). 7. Has he read the book? (long). 8. I've looked through today's newspapers. (since the postman brought them).
Model 2: They are playing tennis now. (since lunch time)
They have been playing tennis since lunch time.
1. It's snowing hard. (since early morning). 2. I am looking for a book which I've put somewhere. (since I returned from the office). 3. She is wearing a brown hat today. (for three years). 4. They are making tractors at this factory (since 1935). 5. They are translating an article from the Morning Star now. (for two hours). 6. The baby is crying. (all morning). 7. I am reading David Copperfield now. (this week). 8. She is waiting for you in the hall. (for twenty minutes).
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