Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии


S.K.Rustemova, R.Zh. Babzhanova.



S.K.Rustemova, R.Zh. Babzhanova.

DESIGN

 

 

Astana 2015

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE OF THE REPUBLIC

OF KAZAKHSTAN

S. SEIFFULIN KAZAKH AGROTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED ENGLISH

TUTORIAL

FOR STUDENTS ON SPECIALTY 5B042000 -

DESIGN

Astana 2015

Казахский агротехнический университет им. С.Сейфуллина

 

УТВЕРЖДАЮ

 

Рассмотрено и одобрено Первый заместитель к изданию на заседании председателя Правления АО

методического совета «КАТУ им.С.Сейфуллина»

АО «КАТУ им.С.Сейфуллина» _____________ Абдыров А.М.

протокол № от 2015 г (подпись) (ФИО)

«____ » _________ 2015 г

DESIGN

Составители: старший преподаватель английского языка Рустемова С.К., ассистент Бабжанова Р.Ж.

Рецензент:

старший преподаватель английского языка кафедры иностранных языков КАТУ им. С.Сейфуллина Байгошкарова М.И.

 

Учебно-методический комплекс дисциплины включает в себя специализированные тексты и грамматические темы, а также дополнительные тексты. Образцы промежуточных и экзаменационных тестов позволяют студентам самостоятельно подготовиться к рубежному и итоговому контролю. Данный в УМКД грамматический справочник позволяет студентам систематизировать грамматический материал.

УМКД содержит глоссарий для составления тематических текстов.

 

Рассмотрено и рекомендовано на заседании методической комиссии

кафедры иностранных языков

Протокол 2 от « 23 » декабря 2015 г.

 

 

Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков КАТУ им. С.Сейфуллина

Протокол №5 от « 24» декабря 2015 г.

 

 

1. THE LECTURER’ S DATA:

Rustemova Saule

Senior lecturer of English

Babzhanova Rymgul

Lecturer of English

office phone 38-40-08, Room: 2614, 2615

2. DISCIPLINE DATA
● tutorial
● Course - 3
● Credits - 2
● practical hours - 30
● Semester - 5
● Department of Foreign languages

The discipline is Core Subject

1. The purpose and task of the discipline, its place in educational process

1.1 The purpose of the course “English for Specific Purpose” is to study the new design terminology and formation of representations about planning, designing, principals of design and material studies.

 

Tasks of the course studying are

Students must know

· the basic English terminology concerning design.

· be able to discuss in English about processes proceeding in design.

· The knowledge of art, science and technology and humanity.

1.3 List of disciplines necessary for studying this discipline – science, history, geography, drawing, English in the volume of secondary school

1.4. After learning the discipline student should:

have an idea about: A. vocabulary related to the professional field of the target language to the extent necessary for intercultural communication at a high level; typical scenarios of interaction in the professional field; national peculiarities of business communication in the professional field; basic principles of teamwork;

B. Know and understand

C. Be able:

To work with scientific and popular literature, to use the vocabulary of professional sphere in the target language; to communicate in accordance with the typical model of the situation in a professional sphere; conduct business talks, negotiations, discussions on professional topics; organize teamwork to solve professional problems; measure their performance in terms of social significance.

D. Own:

skills of verbal expression, adequately using lexical resources of professional sphere target language; skills to participate in a variety of situations of professional communication; communication skills in the professional field with representatives of different countries; verbal interaction in a team; performing the functions of linguistic mediator considering ideas about the social and environmental aspects of its activities.

E. acquire practical skills

Fluency in English which is a mandatory component of the training of the modern expert in every field, including the future of the design.

 

Distribution of credit hours

Weeks Total
Practical classes
Office hours 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 7.5
Self-study 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 52.5
Total

PREREQUISITES

· English language,

· History,

· Geography,

· Drawing
4. POSTREQUISITES

· Design

· History of design

· Art

· Design and engineering

 

BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTION

The purpose of the course “Proficient English” is to study the new design terminology and formation of representations about planning, designing and constructing and other methods of designing.

The given course is aimed at studying the designing, history of design, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect.

Course objectives are:

Tasks of the course studying are

Students must know

· the basic English terminology concerning the art and science of designing.

· be able to discuss in English about processes proceeding in design.

By the end of the course student must:

Be component to solve concrete questions of design, understand the subject and matter of design, reassess the boundaries of the discipline and the object at its centre; explore the importance of designers in the production of design by various forms of the control including express train – interrogation, conversations, individual work with distributing materials, discussions, etc. in English.

COURSE CONTENT

Weeks Themes References Hours Rate score
 
Grammar: Tense revision. Present perfect tense. Word building Vocabulary: Introduction. What is graphic design? Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks Basic literature: 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature: 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Passive Voice 1 Vocabulary: An introduction to brand design. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Passive voice 2 Vocabulary: Why is furniture design important? Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25 Supplementary literature 1-3, 17   1, 5
Grammar: Prepositions. Types of prepositions Modal verbs and their equivalents. Vocabulary: A guide to interior design Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25     Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Word building. Conversion. Participle I Vocabulary: Fashion and textile design. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17   1, 5
Grammar: Participle II. Adjective forming suffixes Vocabulary: A history of fashion. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Infinitive. Functions of the infinitive. Impersonal sent. Vocabulary: What design is and why it matters Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25     Supplementary literature 1-3, 17   1, 5
Grammar: Grammar Revision Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17    
  Midterm examination № 1    

 

Grammar: Types of subordinate sentences. Clauses. Complex Object. Vocabulary: History of fashion design. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17   1, 5
Grammar: TheInfinitive construction Complex Subject Vocabulary: Types of fashion. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Conjunction and conjunction words. Structure of compound sentences. Vocabulary: Mass market. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Sequence of tenses. Reported speech Vocabulary: World fashion industry. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17   1, 5
Grammar: Sequence of tenses. Reported speech Vocabulary: The new economic policy. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme     Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Conditional sentences. Wish clauses. Vocabulary: Fashion design terms. Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25   Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
Grammar: Grammar Revision Vocabulary: Design is a process Listening: Listening comprehension of statements and tasks on the theme   Basic literature 1, 2, 13, 23-25 Supplementary literature 1-3, 17 1, 5
  Course work (Report)     2.5
  Midterm examination №2    

REFERENCE


Basic literature

 

1. Закон об образовании РК, № 389 - 1з РК, 07.06.99, г. Астана.

2. Государственный образовательный стандарт Р.К. Образование высшее профессиональное. Основные положения ГОСО РК. 3001-2000, Астана, 2000.

3. Абдыгаппарова С.Б., Ахметова Г.К., Ибатуллин С.Р. и др. Основы кредитной системы обучения в Казахстане. Алматы, 2004.

4. Бонк Н.А. и др. Учебник английского языка. Москва: Деконт, 1999.

5. Бурова З.И. Учебно-методический комплекс по английскому языку для гуманитарных вузов. Москва, 2000.

6. Антипова А.Ф. Анлийский для студентов технических вузов. – Альянс, 2011.

7. Карыбаева Г.А. ЭУ для студентов специальности «Дизайн».- Алматы: КазГАСА, 2009

8. Мусихина О.Н. Английский для строителей. - Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2009

9. Козлов П.Г. Коммуникативные умения как ядро иноязычной коммуникативной способности. - В сб. Коммуникативные основы обучения иностранным языкам. Алматы, 1994.

10.Ю.Кузнецова Н. Учись читать литературу по специальности. Москва: Высшая школа, 1985.

11.Кунанбаева С.С. Теоретические основы коммуникативно-ориентированного обучения иностранным языкам. Алматы, 1994.

12. Безручко Е.Н. Английский для архитекторов.- М.: ВШ, 2009

13.Отраслевые двуязычные словари: русско-английский.

14.The Essentials of English A Writer's Handbook Longman, 2004

15.Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. 2004.

16.Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Longman, 2004.

17. Дизайн: сборник текстов для перевода (на английском языке)

Е. С. Манченко, В. М. Радван. – Астрахань: Астраханский государственный университет, Издательский дом «Астраханский университет», 2011.

 

Supplementary literature

1. R. Murphy English grammar in use (elementary)
2. R. Murphy English grammar in use (intermediate)
3. Луговая А.Л. Английский для строительных специальностей. – М: ВШ, 2008
4. D.Rakhimova, S.Rustemova, B.Alimzhanova Architecture 2005
5. Полякова Е.Ю. Английский для инженеров. - М: ВШ, 2008
6. Ауезова Г.Т., Сариева А.К. Английский для студентов строительной специальности.- Алматы: КазГАСА, 2009
7. И.П. Агабекян, П.И. Коваленко, Английский для инженеров. Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2009
8. Ю. Голицынский Сборник грамматических упражнений. Москва 2005
9. S.I. Blinova English for practice 1998
10. Т.Ю. Дроздова English Grammar: Reference and Practice. С.Петербург 2002
11.. Interactive board, projector, computer classroom

 

Course policy

Students are not allowed to:

· Be late for classes

· Miss classes without any reason

· Talk during class by cell phone, chew gum

· Avoid wearing business dress code

· Be impolite with fellow students and teachers

 

Knowledge assessment

Current check - during tutorials, office hours, self study where students have:

- To be able to speak on the given subject;

- To make up typical dialogues and to reproduce them;

- To present the chosen theme, advertisement of the product, company etc.

- To complete written exercises;

- To do role plays;

- To translate (orally or written) the texts, articles according to the specialties.

Midterm examination:

- To do vocabulary and grammar checking tests.

Final examination :

- To pass exam at the end of the term ( in cards form)

GRADING SYSTEM

The policy of assessment is based on a 100-point system and provides the following distribution of points: the current and intermediate control is assigned a total of 60 points, the final control - 40 points.

 

11.1 Approximate scheme of knowledge assessment during the course

 

  The student’s activity on: Number of points min/max
I CURRENT CONTROL: -practical classes - self-study   12, 5/25 point 7, 5/15 point  
II INTERMEDIATE CONTROL: two of 10 control points for each coursework in the semester   10/20 (10*2=20) 5/10
III FINAL EXAM 20/40
  Total 50/100 points

 

11.2 Approximate scheme of the student’s grading at the exam

 

  Examination results Evaluation in points (в %)
1. Current control
2. Intermediate control
3. Final control

 

11.3 The student’s knowledge assessment scale  
Scores in alphabetic system   The digital equivalent of the points   The percentage of points     Point on conventional system
А 4, 0 95-100 excellent  
А- 3, 67 90-94  
В+ 3, 33 85-89 good  
В 3, 0 80-84  
В- 2, 67 75-79  
С+ 2, 33 70-74 satisfactory  
С 2, 0 65-69  
С- 1, 67 60-64  
Д+ 1, 33 55-59  
Д 1, 0 50-54  
F 0-49 unsatisfactory  
           

 

Glossary


graphical user interface – графиче-

ский интерфейс пользователя

(разновидность пользовательско-

го интерфейса, в котором эле-

менты интерфейса (меню, кноп-

ки, значки, списки и т.д.), пред-

ставленные пользователю на дис-

плее, исполнены в виде графиче-

ских изображений)

corporate identity – марка фирмы

(престиж, репутация); фирмен-

ный стиль (набор визуальных, словесных и т.д. констант, обеспечивающий стилистическое единство товаров, услуг и всей исхо-

дящей от фирмы информации)

process design – разработка про-

изводственного или технологиче-

ского процесса; технологическая

подготовка производства

concept designer – разработчик

концептуальных решений

web designer – разработ-

чик/дизайнер web-страниц


Exercises

Design as a process

Design as a process can take many forms depending on the object being designed and the individual or individuals participating.

Design underpins every form of creation from objects such as chairs to the

way we plan and execute our lives. For this reason it is useful to seek out some common structure that can be applied to any kind of design, whether this be for video games, consumer products or one's own personal life.

For such an important concept, the question “What is Design? ” appears to

yield answers with limited usefulness. Dino Dini, video game developer states that the design process can be defined as “The management of constraints”. He identifies two kinds of constraint, negotiable and non-negotiable. The first step in the design process is the identification, classification and selection of constraints. The process of design then proceeds from here by manipulating design variables so as to satisfy the non-negotiable constraints and optimizing those which are negotiable.

It is possible for a set of non-negotiable constraints to be in conflict resulting in a design with no solution; in this case the non-negotiable constraints must be revised.

For example, take the design of a chair. A chair must support a certain weight to be useful, and this is a non-negotiable constraint. The cost of producing the chair might be another. The choice of materials and the aesthetic qualities of the chair might be negotiable. Dino Dini theorizes that poor designs occur as a result of mismanaged constraints.

There is also a concept of redesign. Something that is redesigned requires a

different process than something that is designed for the first time. A redesign often includes an evaluation of the existent design and the findings of the redesign needs are often the ones that drive the redesign process.

Glossary


The management of constraints –

теория ограничений (theory of

constraints) – популярная концеп-

ция менеджмента, разработан-

ная в 80-х гг. XX в. Теория предлагает концентрировать организационные ресурсы на устранении ограничений

(конфликтов), которые мешают компании полностью

реализовать её потенциал.

Позволяет успешно разрешать

множество противоречий: меж-

ду сроками и качеством, стоимостью и затратами, требуемой производительностью и

имеющимися ресурсами

redesign – реконструкция, пере-

делка, модернизация, переработка


Exercises

Approaches to design

There are countless philosophies for guiding design as the design values

and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers. Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. A design goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element, to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Design goals are usually for guiding design. However, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of design, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals.

A design philosophy is a guide to help make choices when designing such

as ergonomics, costs, economics, functionality and methods of re-design. An example of a design philosophy is “dynamic change” to achieve the elegant or

stylish look you need.

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a

guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don't conflict. Some

popular approaches include:

· KISS principle, (Keep it Simple

Stupid, etc.), which strives to eliminate

unnecessary complications;

· There is more than one way to do it (TIMTOWTDI), a philosophy to

allow multiple methods of doing the same thing;

· Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals and tasks associated

with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on the end user;

· User-centered design, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations

of the end user of the designed artifact.

Glossary


holistic – целостный, глобальный

Kiss principle – принцип «не ус-

ложняй»; «кисс-принцип» (прин-

цип упрощения конструкции или

работы)

ergonomics – эргономика (изучение трудовых процессов и условий

труда, а также возможности человека при выполнении различных видов работ)

Use-centered design – дизайн, со-

средоточенный на цели

User-centered design – дизайн, со-

средоточенный на потребителе


 

Methods of design

Design methods is a broad area that focuses on:

· exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking

skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services

or the creation of new categories (brainstorming);

· redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better uidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);

· managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time;

· prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation;

· trendspotting; understanding the trend process.

In philosophy, the abstract noun “design” refers to a pattern with a purpose.

Design is thus contrasted with purposelessness, randomness, or lack of

complexity.

To study the purpose of designs, beyond individual goals (e.g. marketing,

technology, education, entertainment, hobbies), is to question the controversial politics, morals, ethics and needs. “Purpose” may also lead to existential questions such as religious morals and teleology. These philosophies for the “purpose of” designs are in contrast to philosophies for guiding design or methodology.

Often a designer (especially in commercial situations) is not in a position

to define purpose. Whether a designer is, is not, or should be concerned with

purpose or intended use beyond what they are expressly hired to influence, is

debatable, depending on the situation. In society, not understanding or disinterest in the wider role of design might also be attributed to the commissioning agent or client, rather than the designer.

In structuration theory, achieving consensus and fulfillment of purpose is

as continuous as society. Raised levels of achievement often lead to raised expectations.

Design is both medium and outcome, generating a Janus-like face,

with every ending marking a new beginning.

 


Glossary

brainstorming – «мозговая ата-

ка/штурм» (форма поиска реше-

ния сложной проблемы, приме-

няемая в случаях, когда решение

трудно найти обычными мето-

дами или когда его необходимо

найти быстро)

incremental – возрастающий, поднимающийся, увеличивающийся

trendspotting – анализ трендов,

тенденций

randomness – случайность; произвольность

structuration theory – теория

структурации (according to it, all

human action is performed within

the context of a pre-existing social

structure which is governed by a set of norms and/or laws which are distinct from those of other social structures.

Therefore, all human action is

at least partly predetermined based

on the varying contextual rules under which it occurs. However, the structure and rules are not permanent and external, but sustained and

modified by human action)


Exercises

1. Explain the following in English: 1) holistic; 2) ultimate goals; 3) ergonomics;

4) functionality; 5) dynamic change; 6) incrementally; 7) complexity;

8) structuration theory; 9) teleology.

2. Match the following terms with corresponding definitions:

1) User-centered;

2) Use-centered;

3) TIMTOWTDI;

4) trendspotting;

5) kiss;

6) Brainstorming

a) strive to eliminate unnecessary complications;

b) a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing

the same thing;

c) a design focused on the goals and tasks associated

with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on

the end user;

d) a design focused on the needs, wants, and limitations

of the end user of the designed artifact;

e) exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing

critical thinking skills to research and define problem

spaces;

f) method of understanding trend processes.

Glossary


designer drug – (similar subjective

effects to illegal recreational drugs) –наркотик кустарного производства (a term used to describe psychoactive

drugs which are created (or marketed,

if they had already existed) to get around existing drug laws, usually

by modifying the molecular structures

of existing drugs to varying degrees, or less commonly by finding drugs with entirely different chemical structures that produce)

automotive designer – автомобильный конструктор

to devise – разрабатывать

un-regulated – нерегулируемый

“signature” designer – дизайнер «с именем»

ostentatiously для вида

stubble – щетина, небритая борода

ergonomics эргономика

to conceive задумывать

beneficial выгодный

pre-requisite предпосылка

apprenticed отданный в ученики (подмастерья)

scenic – сценический, театральный

blogging модель интерактивной журналистики, способ общения и познания

 


Exercises

1. Find in the text the English equivalents: разрабатывать курс дейст-

вий; специфическая область экспертизы; принимать во внимание; охваты-

вать различные технические дисциплины; быть задействованным в выпус-

ке телевизионных программ; продвижение торговой марки; присмотр за

ландшафтом; создавать и реализовывать дизайнерские решения; собирать

образы; корпоративные места; угождать покупателям; яркое театральное

представление; корпоративное начало.

2. Match the words (A) and their definitions (B):

a) Design engineer; b) Architect or architectural designer; c) Automotive designer;

d) Broadcast designer; e) Costume designer; f) Face designer; g) Fashion

designer; h) Textile designer; i) Game designer; j) Graphic designer; k) Industrial

designer; l) Interior designer; m) Jewelry designer; n) Landscape designer;

o) Web designer.

1) a screenwriter or a person who works out a video game or tabletop

games;

2) a person who is a connoisseur in electricity, mechanics, civil engineering,

architecture and building;

3) a person who possesses the knowledge of gemology, metal-smithing

and rendering for creating inimitable jewelry creations;

4) a person who is involved in exploiting some exterior sights of a landscape

or space;

5) a person who develops and styles objects of the Internet's information

environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic

qualities;

6) a person who is engaged in the building’s design or urban landscapes;

7) a person who is concerned to create and execute design solutions towards

problems of form, usability, user ergonomics, engineering, marketing,

brand development and sales;

8) a person who is responsible for typesetting, illustration, user interfaces,

and web design and creates the graphics primarily for published, printed or electronic

media;

9) a professional who is competent in many disciplines that are connected

with a built interior environment;

10) a person who has an edge to create costumes for a film or stage production;

11) a person who is aware of fashion trends and creates his own viewpoint

of style;

12) a person who is to design a look and feel for a specific idea or subject

that is incorporated in television productions;

13) an artist who creates makeup and prosthetics for theatrical, television,

film, fashion, magazines and other similar productions;

14) a person who is designing a concept of motor vehicles or more specifically

road vehicles;

15) a specialist who is conscious of the technical aspects of production

and the properties of fiber, yarn, and dyes thus creating designs for knitted,

woven or printed fabrics.

Graphic design

Graphic design, also known as communication design, is the art and practice of planning and projecting ideas and experiences with visual and textual content. The form of the communication can be physical or virtual, and may include images, words, or graphic forms. The experience can take place in an instant or over a long period of time. The work can happen at any scale, from the design of a single postage stamp to a national postal signage system, or from a company’s digital avatar to the sprawling and interlinked digital and physical content of an international newspaper. It can also be for any purpose, whether commercial, educational, cultural, or political.

The term “graphic design” can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual communication and presentation.

Various methods are used to create and combine symbols, images and/or words to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated.

Common uses of graphic design include magazines, advertisements and

product packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or

other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design especially when using pre-existing materials or diverse elements.

While Graphic Design as a discipline has a relatively recent history, graphic design-like activities span the history of humankind: from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome's Trajan's Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the

Middle Ages, to the dazzling neons of Ginza. In both this lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of visual communication in the XXth and XXIst centuries, there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over-lapping of

advertising art, graphic design and fine art. After all, they share many of thesame elements, theories, principles, practices and languages, and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising art the ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, “the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human experience”.

During the Tang Dynasty (618–906) between the IVth and VIIth century A.D.

wood blocks were cut to print on textiles and later to reproduce Buddhist texts.

A Buddhist scripture printed in 868 is the earliest known printed book.

Beginning in the XIth century, longer scrolls and books were produced using

movable type printing making books widely available during the Song dynasty (960–1279). Sometime around 1450, Johann Gutenberg's printing press madebooks widely available in Europe. The book design of Aldus Manutius

developed the book structure which would become the foundation of western

publication design. This era of graphic design is called Humanist or Old Style.

Glossary


benefactor – благодетель

dazzle –1) ослепление, ослепитель-

ный блеск, сверкание (вызываю-

щие потерю или притупление зрения) (dazzle light – ослепляющий свет, dazzle of headlights — слепящее действие фар); 2) блеск, яркость, великолепие (amidst the tumult

and the dazzle of their busy

life – среди суматохи и блеска их

беспокойной жизни);

3) нанесение камуфляжной окраски (на корабль)

distinction – различие

diverse – разнообразный

to focus (on) – сосредоточиться

(на), помещаться в фокусе, соби-

раться

logo (logotype) – 1) полигр. – логотип (шрифт, каждая литера ко-

торого состоит из нескольких

букв);

2) фирменный или товар-

ный знак;

3) эмблема (графиче-

ский символ); (рекламный) девиз

(на упаковке и т.д.)

scroll – свиток

to spin – кружить, вертеть

ultimate – последний,

окончательный

Lascaux – the setting of a complex

of caves in southwestern

France famous for

its Paleolithic cave paintings


Exercises

1. Find in the text the English equivalents: объединить символы, изо-

бражения и/или слова; произвести окончательный результат; бурный рост

визуальной коммуникации; печатная машина; частичное совпадение реклам-

ного искусства, графического дизайна и изобразительного искусства; яркий

неоновый свет; объединяться в единое целое; проект публикации.

Interior design

Fig.4. Interior design (living-room)

Interior design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical

solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment.

These solutions are functional, enhance the quality of life and culture of

the occupants, and are aesthetically attractive. Designs are created in response to and coordinated with code and regulatory requirements, and encourage the principles of environmental sustainability.

The interior design process follows a systematic and coordinated methodology, including research, analysis and integration of knowledge into the creative process, whereby the needs and resources of the client are satisfied to produce an interior space that fulfills the project goals.

The work of an interior designer draws upon many disciplines including

environmental psychology, architecture, product design, and traditional decoration (aesthetics and cosmetics). They plan the spaces of almost every type of building including: hotels, corporate spaces, schools, hospitals, private residences, shopping malls, restaurants, theaters, and airport terminals. Today, interior designers must be attuned to architectural detailing including floor plans, home renovations, and construction codes. Some interior designers are architects as well.

There is a wide range of disciplines within the career of interior design.

Domestically the profession of interior design encompasses those designers who may specialize in residential or commercial interior design. Within residential design one can specialize in kitchen and bathroom design, universal design, design for the aged, multifamily housing amongst others. Other interior designers may dwell in the commercial or contract realm of interior space design. In addition to the above commercial interior designers may specialize in furniture design, healthcare design, hospitality design, retail design, workspace design, sustainability, and if they are a registered architect they can focus on the interior architecture of a space. It is the intent of the professional interior designer to improve the psychological and/or physiological well being of their clients. The professional interior designer achieves this by understanding their clients′ needs, seeking appropriate solutions, respect their clients social, physical and psychological needs and applying them in a safe and ecologically sensitive manner that promotes the health, safety and welfare of the clients. Interior decoration deals with the home renovations that can be easily and quickly changed, and at lower budgets such as changing kitchen cabinets, selecting wall paper, selecting furniture and usually does not deal with structural building codes. An interior decorator does not need a degree, but may have a diploma or certificate in interior decorating, while an interior designer would have a four year degree in interior design.

Glossary


multi-faceted – разносторонний

enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать (особое качество, значимость, ценность, важность, привлекательность чего-либо) environmental

psychology – экологическая психология, психология влияния на человека факторов окружающей среды

to be attuned to – настроенный,

приспособленный, гармоничный

residential design – проектирова-

ние, дизайн жилых помещений

retail design – дизайн магазинов

hospitality design – дизайн гости-

ниц и ресторанов, развлекатель-

ных учреждений (клубов, казино и т.д.)

healthcare design – дизайн интерьеров учреждений здравоохранения


Exercises

Kinds of interior

A. Residential interiors.

Residential interiors are obviously much freer and much more personal

for both the interior designer and the occupants than other types of interiors. In fact, homes that have been designed unconsciously by creative occupants without any standard decorative rules are often the most beautiful ones. Certain planning and functional considerations are constant in any residence, and, although these too may be ignored by the occupant who wishes to be strongly individualistic, they can provide at least basic guidelines.

The planning of modern houses or apartments must take into consideration

the location of certain needs in relation to others. The dining space should

be near the food-preparation area, and the food-preparation area should be accessible to the entrance used to bring in food supplies and remove waste. Access to children’s sleeping areas should not be through the adults’ living spaces. Access to bathrooms should be close to the bedroom areas and should not be through living or dining spaces.

The furniture arrangement for a living space must take into account the

occupant’s life-style and preferences. If a space is planned for young people, no seating might be provided other than the floor, but, for the more conservative or older occupants, comfortable seating for conversation and other activities is essential.

Open-plan houses (living, dining, eating facilities without separate

rooms) work splendidly and beautifully for some people but might not be the

ideal answer for a family with many children and a desire for privacy at the

same time. The special storage needs that must be considered for many homes

vary from bookshelves to storage areas for bicycles, from facilities for recorded music to storage of sporting equipment. Such facilities can often be added by interior designers, if not provided by the architect.

There are several types of residence, and each one may require a different

approach, partially based on economic considerations. The private house owned by the occupant warrants not only built-in designs and other permanent design features (lighting, flooring, etc.) but, in general, lends itself naturally to anything within the imagination of the designer and the budget of the owner. Cooperative apartments are prevalent in larger cities, and those that are bought outright by the owners can be designed and changed as long as the structure of the building is not tampered with. A different approach is usually called for in rented apartments or houses. Major changes and special furniture and other built-in features would be considered a poor investment by the client and would, as a rule, be frowned upon by the landlords.

In the past, professional help for residences has been basically reserved

for wealthy clients. The residences involved were often status symbols, and the furnishings were to a large extent traditional furnishings and antiques. The best of such ornately designed homes are authentic, museum-like interiors, which indeed only the very affluent can afford.

Today, instead of being limited to the service of the wealthy, the designer

has a widening and important opportunity in a totally different aspect of residential interiors: mass housing and low-income housing. Such designers, as well as helping to create more liveable spaces for those with limited housing budgets, can also be of great help in assisting occupants to choose simple, sturdy, attractive, and functional furnishings. A major problem for many people, on a variety of income levels, is the high cost of furnishings; mistakes in judgment are too costly to be discarded and thus must be endured. The help of professionals can minimize this problem and also protect low-income families from being induced to buy installment-plan furnishings of poor quality and design.

Glossary

open-plan house – «дом открытой

планировки» (с большими комна-

тами, окна выходят на обе сто-

роны здания)

to tamper with – вмешиваться,

портить

affluent – изобильный, обильный;

богатый

induced – вынужденный

installment-plan – покупка в рас-

срочку

B. Public interiors.

Although many designers are engaged in residential interior design, there

has been a marked shift away from that field since 1950, and more designers

than ever work in the design of public, institutional, and commercial spaces.

Space planning for business firms, governmental agencies, and institutions is a significant aspect of office design and is concerned primarily with planning, allocation of spaces, and interrelations between offices, departments, and individuals.

The aesthetic or design phase varies with the degree of importance attached

to offices by the clients. In a large firm, the clerical, accounting, or filing

areas tend to be well designed in terms of lighting, efficiency, space, and function but have few frills or design features. The executive offices, reception areas, and conference rooms, on the other hand, are frequently elaborately and luxuriously designed, since they serve as images for the corporations as well as status symbols for their occupants. Decisions relating to size of offices and their furnishings are basically arrived at through functional considerations. An executive frequently must seat groups of people in his office. A department manager or clerk will rarely need more than one or two extra chairs.

A rather recent innovation in office design is known as office landscape.

The system was developed in the 1960s by a German team of planning and

management consultants offered the idea not to build the traditional permanent walls and private offices but to arrange a large open space in a purely functional plan. Divisions between people and departments are created by free-standing screens, and plants are often used to divide and enhance space. Office landscape has been used in several major installations in the United States, following considerable popularity in Europe.

Glossary

сlerical – канцелярский, контор-

ский

filing area – помещение/зона для

хранения документов

frill – роскошь, излишества, не-

нужные украшения

office landscape – дизайн офисного

помещения

C. Governmental interiors.

A notable characteristic of interior design for public buildings – such as

court rooms, assembly halls, city halls, and cultural buildings – is that the consumer is excluded from participation in decision making. Another is that in all cases the interiors try to present a very definite image or symbol. Governmental buildings, especially in the past, were designed to present a solemn, aweinspiring, majestic, and even slightly ominous look, both in their architectural composition and their interior treatment of spaces. For centuries, marble, stone, lofty ceilings, and imposing architectural elements have been traditional.

D. Institutional interiors.

Schools, hospitals, and universities are examples of institutions now extensively using the services of interior designers and architects. Certain institutional needs, such as operating rooms in hospitals, are strictly functional, yet the patients’ rooms and many other hospital facilities are very much within the scope of interior design. Until recently, however, such involvement was not prevalent, and it has been common to refer to a sterile, dull-looking space as “looking like a hospital”. A greater recognition of the influence of the environment upon human behaviour has brought about increased emphasis on interior design for all kinds of institutional interiors. Indeed, even though up to now little work has been done by designers in penal institutions, it is a safe prediction that in a short time there will be considerable concern for the environmental qualities of these institutions, as well.

E. Commercial interiors.

Contemporary designers are much involved with commercial spaces –

such as stores, hotels, motels, and restaurants. Many designers and design firms specialize in highly specific spaces such as restaurants, and others may become specialists in the design of showrooms for the garment industry. Frequently, the design of a restaurant, shop, or hotel must be keyed to a theme. It might be a nautical theme for a yacht club or a theme based on the artifacts of the particular region in which a hotel is located. Obviously, all commercial spaces must be designed in a highly functional way. A store with a beautifully designed interior will fail if it does not work for circulation of customers, for display, for storage, and above all for sales. Some of these functional needs create difficult design problems. A hotel or motel room, for instance, must be designed for use by individuals, couples, and family groups. Maintenance is also an important factor in the design of commercial spaces.

F. Religious interiors.

Religious architecture is heavily influenced by symbolic concepts as well

as by the ritual and traditions of a particular faith. Designers of religious interiors must, therefore, base their approach on a set of rules preceding all other design considerations. The simple and modest Quaker prayer-houses, for instance, express the tenets of that faith as clearly as some of the richly appointed Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

G. Industrial interiors.

Industrial interiors do not usually involve interior designers. There are, of

course, many industrial spaces, such as workshops, laboratories, and factories,

that have been planned by architects and designers, and there are a few that have stressed some aesthetic considerations. By and large, however, industrial interiors are created as strictly functional spaces. For this very reason, some of these spaces are quite beautiful. This may sound paradoxical, but, like the modern bridge or airplane, they can be extremely handsome without the conscious attempt to create beauty.

H. Special interiors.

There are many kinds of special interiors that at times fall within the larger

field of environmental design and that do not fit into a particular category or

even a professional subspecialty. Transportation design may be part engineering, part industrial design, part architecture, and part interior design. Interiors of ships are certainly interior design, but the interiors of automobiles, aircraft, and trains are often a combination of many specialties. The advent of large commercial aircraft has taken the aircraft interior out of the area of the strictly functional, and, indeed, the introduction of these large planes has seen an intense competition among the airlines to create spaces that go beyond the concept of mere seating. Also included in transportation design are the terminal buildings associated with air, road, and water transportation systems.

A less spectacular example is the field of exhibition design, another area

of design having interfaces with other fields, including, in this case, graphics

and advertising. Related to this field are museum design and exhibition and the preservation and restoration of historic buildings.

It is clear that any man-made interior or exterior space is influenced by

design or its absence. More important than a listing of the various kinds of spe

cial interiors is the underlying fact that designers are becoming involved in all

aspects of the environment.

Glossary


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