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Exercise 32, p. 91: Study the following patterns.1

The Past Perfect Tense


Exercise 32, p. 91: Study the following patterns.1

1. By three o'clock yesterday he had arranged everything for the trip.

2. He said that they had left Moscow a week before.

3. She told me that she had known him since 1962.

4. When we arrived at the stadium, the match had already started.

5. As soon as (when, after) they had finished breakfast the children ran out to play.

6. He did not want to go to the cinema because he had seen the film on TV.


Exercise 33, p. 91: Complete the following sentences, using the Past Perfect Tense (see the patterns above).

(A) 1. He told her that he (buy a TV set the year before). 2. The man at the station said that the train (leave already). 3.Mary told me that she (not get a letter from her son yet). She said that she (not hear from him for some weeks). 4. He understood that he (get off at the wrong sta­tion). 5. He said that his parents (always live in the country). 6. I didn't know that she (change her address). 7. He didn't remember how it all (happen). 8.We were sure that she (tell the truth). 9. I saw that the child (catch a cold). 10. She hoped that I (pay for the tickets already). 11. When he woke up next morning and looked out of the window he understood that it (rain heavily during the night).


(B) 1. When we came back, the telegram (arrive already). 2. When I got to the station the train (already leave). 3. The rain (already stop) when we started. 4. When I finished school my elder sister (be a teacher for two years). 5. We (make all the arrangements already) when we learned that he wouldn't come.


(C) 1. I knew her immediately because my brother (describe her to me very well). 2. The militiaman stopped her because she (cross the street in the wrong place). 3. I was not hungry because I (have lunch just an hour before). 4. Nobody knew when he came in because he (enter the house through the back door). 5. I thought he knew English well because he (live in England for some years). 6. It happened to him because he (always be too sure of himself).


(D) 1. As soon as they (take a decision) they could discuss less impor­tant questions. 2. After we (make a fire) it became warm. 3. When I (throw out all the old newspapers and magazines) I could arrange my new books nicely on the shelf. 4. After he (pay the money for the plane tickets) he had very little left in his pockets. 5. I met her soon after I (learn the news). 6. When he (finish his work) he went to bed.


Exercise 34, p. 92: Practise the following according to the model.

Model: Mary told us a story she had never (not) told us before.

1.When I was at the Tretyakov Picture Gallery last, I saw some pictures there I —.

2. At their dinner party we met some people we —. 3. I went for a walk and decided to take the road I —. 4. He taught me Judo, in a way nobody —. 5. He showed us the pictures he —. 6. She spoke of something she —. 7. The lecture was very inter­esting, we heard something we —. 8. The dinner was quite unusual, I ate something —.


Exercise 35, p. 92: Translate the following sentences, using the correct tense form.

(A) 1. Они сказали, что приехали сюда на поезде. 2. Все знали, что они дружат с детства. 3. Мы сказали им, что еще не уладили это дело. 4. По радио объявили, что поезд из Сочи уже прибыл. 5. Он писал, что погода там пасмурная с первого сентября. 6. Сосед по купе сказал, что мы уже проехали мост. 7. Когда поезд тронулся, я понял, что сел не на тот поезд. 8. Врач сказал, что ребенок простудился.


(B) 1. Когда я нашел их дом, уже стемнело. 2. Когда она пришла на собрание, мы уже обсудили первый вопрос. 3. Когда врач пришел, они уже увезли ребенка в больницу. 4. Когда я вернулся из театра, гости уже разошлись (ушли). 5. Когда она приехала в деревню, мы жили там уже неделю. 6. Когда я вернулся в купе, я понял, что мой сосед уже сошел.


(C) 1. В комнате было холодно, потому что всю ночь было открыто окно. 2. Он был взволнован потому, что получил телеграмму из дома. 3. Она получила плохую оценку на экзамене потому, что сделала очень много ошибок. 4. Он не хотел обедать у нас потому, что уже поел в институте. 5. Ему не хватило денег до конца месяца, потому что он купил велосипед.


The Future Perfect Tense


Exercise 36, p. 93: Study the following patterns:

1. They will have done their work by 7 o'clock.

2. By this time tomorrow he will have crossed the channel and will be in England.

3. In 1990 he will have lived in Moscow for twenty years.

4. By the time you come back, he'll have been here for two hours.


Exercise 37, p. 93: Complete the following sentences, using the Future Perfect Tense.

1. By the time he arrives they — (leave). 2. She is ill now. By the first of April she— (be in hospital for three weeks). 3. He has bought this TV set on credit. He — (pay all the money by the 21st of August). 4. How long has she stayed with your family? By the end of the month she —. 5. She has lived here a long time. By 1990 she —. 6. He is still a school boy, but by this time next year he — (leave school).


Exercise 38, p. 93: Translate the following sentences, using the Future Perfect Tense.

1. Я надеюсь, что к концу собрания мы уладим этот вопрос. 2. На будущий год к этому времени он проработает на нашем заводе тридцать лет. 3. К тому времени, когда он приедет, я буду жить на юге уже две недели. 4. К тому времени, когда ты приедешь домой, ты за­будешь все, что я говорил тебе. 5. К 1 Мая они уже переедут в новую квартиру. 6. Они закончат строительство школы к началу учебного года.


Exercise 39, pp. 93-94: Open the brackets, using the correct tense form. Explain the use of the tenses:


Mr Sherlock Holmes (sit) one morning at the breakfast table in his room in Baker Street. His friend Dr Watson (stand) near the window, examining a walking stick which a visitor (forget) the day before. “To Dr Mortimer, from his friend," was engraved upon it, with the date "1884". Sherlock Holmes suddenly (turn) to Watson and (say): “The owner of this stick (have) a dog which (be) larger than a terrier and smaller than a mastiff."

"How you (know)?" (ask) Watson in surprise.

"I (examine) that stick carefully and (notice) the marks of a dog’s teeth on it," (answer) Holmes. "They (be) too broad for a terrier and not broad enough for a mastiff. Probably the dog often (carry) the stick behind its master. I think it must be a spaniel, in fact it (be) a spaniel.”

Holmes (leave) the breakfast-table and (stand) near the window as he (say) this. Watson (look) at him in surprise and (ask): "How can you be so sure of that?"

"For the simple reason that I (see) the dog at our door and I (hear) the bell which its master (ring). I wonder why Dr Mortimer (want) to see Mr Sherlock Holmes. Well, we soon (know). Come in," he (add), there (be) a knock at the door.


(After "The Hound of the Baskervilles by A. Conan Doyle)


Perfect Continuous Tense Forms (Present, Past and Future)


Exercise 19, p. 216: Study the following chart.


I     She has been waiting to see you since morning. They have been studying English for three years.
II       When I came to work at the Institute she had been teaching there for ten years already. She said that she had been working at this factory since 1980. He had been living in Kiev up to 1981 and then he moved to Moscow.
III By this time next year he will have been lectur­ing on the subject for five years.


Exercise 20, p. 217: Ask questions indicated at the end of the sentences.

1. I have been working on the problem for three years. (How long?) 2. We had been walking for hours before we saw the lake. (How long?) 3. It has been raining since morning. (Since when?) 4. I don't want to go out this evening. I've been working in the garden all day. (Who?) 5. We have been making chemical experiments for the past few days. (What experiments?) 6. By the time she comes, he will have been staying at the hotel for two days. (How long?) 7. He said he had been taking English lessons since he was a boy. (Since what time?) 8. You have been hiding from me lately. (Why?) 9. For the past few minutes he has been trying to make her understand that she is wrong. (What?)


Exercise 22, p. 217: Answer the following questions, using the Present Perfect Continuous Tense1.


Model: Why are you looking so hot? (to run all the way)

I've been running all the way.

1.Why are you so excited? (argue). 2. Why are her eyes red? (cry). 3. Why does he look so tired? (work hard lately). 4. What's so funny? Why are you laughing? (Peter, tell his funny stories again). 5. Why do you keep silent? (sorry, think over your words). 6. What are you doing here? (wait for a friend). 7. Why do you look so pale? (smoke too much today). 8. Why are you late? (walk all the way, something has happened on the trolley-bus line). 9. Why are your hands covered with paint? (paint the door).

Ехercise 11, p. 83: In (A) study the following chart, and in (B) supply the missing parts.


1. lately за последнее время; 1. He has travelled a lot lately.


2. for the last/past few weeks, 2.He has worked too much for

months, years, etc за пос- the last few days.

Ледние несколько недель


3. last time прошлый раз 3.We discussed that question last time.


4. last/for the last time в 4.When did you see him last?

Последний раз



1. When did you get a letter from him __? 2. He has changed for the better ___. 3. Although she had not seen him ___ she recognized him at once. 4. He visited his native town ___ when he was still a boy. 5. How often has he missed classes __? 6. This film was on at our local cinema __. 7. I watched this film on TV several times __. 8. “She has not called on us ___. What’s happened to her?” “She left for Kiev __.” 9. There haven’t been thick fogs in London __.

Exercise 12, p. 84: Translate the following sentences:


1. Когда вы были в Саратове в последний раз? 2. За последние годы наш город изменился до неузнаваемости. 3. В прошлый раз ему не хватило стипендии до конца месяца потому, что он купил словарь. 4. Прошлый раз ты обещал зайти к нам. 5. Последние несколько дней не было дождя и земля совсем сухая. 6. Когда вы получили известия от него в последний раз? 7. За последнее время я прочитал много интересных книг. 8. Почему он опаздывает? За последнее время это случается с ним довольно часто.


Ехercise 13, p. 84: Translate the following sentences, using “till” (‘until”) or “before” according to the sense.


  До till (вплоть до) I’ll stay here till 5.
before (перед, раньше) Call on me before 5.


I. Мы будем ждать вас до шести часов. 2. Это случилось до нашего приезда. 3. Они следили за игрой до самого конца матча. 4. Обсуждение продолжалось до вечера. 5. Мы пришли за десять минут до начала концерта. 6. Они жили здесь вплоть до самой войны. 7. Они жили здесь еще до войны. 8. Наше учреждение переедет в новое здание до нового года. 9. Мы собираемся пробыть здесь до конца лета. 10. Они уехали до обеда. 11. Мы договорились встретиться до собрания. 12. Разбудите меня до семи часов, пожалуйста. 13. Он успевает просматривать газету до завтрака. 14. Дети были на свежем воздухе до вечера. 15. Он сошел с автобуса за две остановки до своей и пошел пешком домой.


I. Perfect Tense Forms


Exercise 23, p. 193: Study the following patterns:


1. The telegram has just been sent.

2. This house has been built for a year (since autumn).

3. The work had been done by five o'clock yesterday.

4. Everything will have been arranged by the end of the day (by the time he comes back, etc).


II. Continuous Tense Forms

Tense and Voice (revision)

The Subject


Model 1: It’s difficult to follow you. You speak so fast.


1.It’s late —. 2. It’s always easy—. 3. It was hard—. 4. Why is it so important —? 5. It'll take you very little time —. 6. It gives him pleasure—. 7. It wasn't difficult—. 8. It's hot—. 9. It's dangerous —. 10. It's time—. 11. It was not easy—. 12. It was so noisy that it was hard —.


hear or be heard; play football today; raise this question; drive a car in a big city; look through my work; call on him today; explain to them the meaning of this word; get letters; explain his behaviour; give advice; believe his words; follow the traffic regulations.

The Predicative

Model 2: The main problem is to get to the place before dark.


1.My job then was —. 2. His next step was —. 3. All you have to do is —. 4. Our plan was —. 5. The only thing he had to do was —. 6. Among other things the job of a reporter is —. 7. The last thing I want is —. 8. The first thing to do is —.


Spend the summer holidays in the mountains; disturb you; attend press conferences; learn the whole truth; get her on the phone; explain how to do it; get information and send it to the newspaper; let her know how things are.

An Object

Model 3: (a) I am sorry to trouble you.

(b) He tried to speak calmly.


1. He couldn't make up his mind whether — or not. 2. The students of our group agreed—. 3. We didn't know which way —. 4. She was eager —. 5. He was a very careless driver, he wasn't afraid —. 6. We were lucky not —. 7. He hates —. 8. The boy promised —. 9. I didn't mean —. 10. He went to bed forgetting —. 11. I was happy —. 12. He was determined —.


turn; attract everybody's attention; break the traffic regulations; stay for the night in the village; take part in the work of the English club; behave well; win first place; switch off the light; miss the train; see an old friend; be the centre of attention; hurt sb's feelings

An Attribute


Model 4: (a) She had nothing to do.

(в) There was nothing to argue about.


1.He had little —. 2. There was no need —. 3. I have nothing —. 4. The ground is wet. Let's find something —. 5. Leaving this town he had nothing —. 6. He had good news —. 7. We have a lot of problems —. 8. You'll need somebody —. 9. She had nothing —. 10. She has a family —.


sit on; say; read; look after; argue about the matter; help you with the work; be proud of; lose; tell; think over


Must, Can and May


Have to1


Be Able1

Be to


The Past Perfect Tense


Exercise 32, p. 91: Study the following patterns.1

1. By three o'clock yesterday he had arranged everything for the trip.

2. He said that they had left Moscow a week before.

3. She told me that she had known him since 1962.

4. When we arrived at the stadium, the match had already started.

5. As soon as (when, after) they had finished breakfast the children ran out to play.

6. He did not want to go to the cinema because he had seen the film on TV.


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