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Exercise 38, p.145: Translate the following sentences, using modal verbs or their equivalents.




1. Современный человек должен много читать и быть образованным, чтобы понимать поступательное развитие нашего общества. 2. В наше время мы не можем обходиться без электричества. 3. Если вы не изучите инструкцию, вы можете сломать машину. 4. Мы должны иметь лекции по истории два раза в неделю, по понедельникам и пятницам. 5. Он был не прав. Ему пришлось согласиться с нами, хотя он был очень недоволен. 6. Нет необходимости повторять мне одно и тоже. Я просто не могу сделать то, что вы хотите. 7. Мне приходится выезжать самым ранним поездом, иначе я опаздываю на первый урок. 8. Давайте не будем спорить об этом сейчас. Мы должны сначала решить первый вопрос. 9. Она поняла, что ей придется переговорить с ним об этом деле. 10. Поскольку вы здесь, можно мне задать вам несколько вопросов? 11. Он должен был передать деньги секретарю, но я не уверен, что он сумел это сделать. 12. В такую солнечную погоду она не может обходиться без темных очков. 13. Вы можете не есть суп, но второе вы должны попробовать. 14. Вы не сможете обсуждать эту тему, пока не прочтете ее до конца. 15. Вы можете помочь мне с моими вещами? 16. Здесь курить нельзя. Это небезопасно. 17. Неужели ты не видишь, что ей нужно работать?! 18. Как вы можете заставлять его делать то, что против его принципов?

 

Modal Verb "Should"

Exercise 20, p. 278: Study the following chart. Translate the sentences into Russian.

 

 

Meaning With a Non-Perfect Infinitive (Present, Future; of past in Reported Speech
Moral obligation, advice, disapproval You should work harder.
  The work should be done at once.
  You should be more careful next time.
  He should stop smoking.
  He said that I should thank her.
  You shouldn’t laugh at his mistake.
   
Meaning With a Perfect Infinitive (past, or prior to the moment of speech)
   
Criticism of a past action (disapproval, reproach, regret) You should have told him the whole truth. (But you didn’t).
  She should have been told the truth. (She wasn’t).
  I should have sent the telegram at once. (I didn’t. I am sorry).
  You shouldn’t have mentioned the fact in her presence. (But you did).
  I said that she shouldn’t have let him go so early. (But she had and it was wrong).

 

Exercise. 21, p. 279: Express advice, disapproval or reproach about the following statements, using “should”:

Model 1: (a) He smokes too much. He shouldn’t smoke so much.

(b) She doesn’t work hard enough. She should work harder.

 

1.You don’t eat properly. 2. She often shouts at people for no reason at all. 3. I see you are not ashamed of what you have said. 4. They often quarrel about little things. 5. He doesn’t know how to behave. 6. You cross the streets very carelessly. 7. The letter is not written yet. 8. He drives very fast.

 

Model 2: (a) He didn’t take part in the discussion.

He should have taken part in the discussion.

(b) She allowed him to go out too early after his illness.

She shouldn’t have allowed him to go out so early after his illness.

 

1.She didn’t follow the doctor’s advice. 2. We came to the party without an invitation. 3. He upset her by his bad behaviour. 4. They didn’t allow her to go on the excursion. She was so eager to go. 5. They smoked in class. 6. I missed this wonderful chance. 7. He didn’t win first place. He had not trained hard enough. 8. We didn’t let him make another attempt. 9. She went there alone.

Exercise. 22, p. 279: Complete the situations, Expressing advice, reproach, regret by using ‘should’, mind the form of the infinitive.

 

1.I didn’t know it would rain. (take an umbrella). 2. You can’t afford to make such a mistake again. (be careful next time). 3. Her advice was reasonable. (follow). 4. You are very tired. (have a rest). 5. Where is Mary? (be back long ago). 6. It seems that he forgot all about his promise. (remind about it). 7. I didn’t know the museum was such a long way from here. (take a taxi). 8. They lost their way. (not turn to the left; go straight). 9. It’s going to be a long trip (take sth to eat on the train). 10. Where is the doctor? (send for immediately). 11. He often misses lectures and lessons. (attend regularly). 12. She forgot what she wanted to say (not interrupt).

 

Exercise. 23, p. 279: Translate the following sentences, using ‘should’, mind the form of the infinitive:

1. Вам надо было сдавать экзамены со всеми остальными студентами. 2. Мне не следовало упускать случай поговорить с ним об этом деле. 3. Этот вопрос надо поднять на следующем заседании. 4. Не надо портить глаза. Зажги свет. 5. Ему следует держать все вещи в порядке и на своих местах, тогда ему не придется искать каждый пустяк. 6. Вы должны были закончить эту работу давно. Вы уже, по-моему, работаете над этой проблемой год. 7. Он сказал, что ей следует прислушаться к голосу разума. 8. Напрасно вы не предупредили ее об изменении в расписании. 9. Они сказали, что вам следовало приехать хотя бы на день раньше.

Modal Verb “Need”:

 

Exercise. 24, p. 280: Study the following chart:

 

Meaning With a non-perfect Infinitive (Present, Future; of past in Reported Speech)
Absence of necessity You needn’t hurry. (There is no need for you to hurry).
  He needn’t speak so loud (Everybody can hear him).
  She said that I needn’t go there.
   
  With a perfect Infinitive (past, or prior to the moment of speech)
  You needn’t have come so early. (There was no need for him to come so early, but he did come). She needn’t have translated the article. (But she did translate it). He said that I needn’t have gone there. (But I had gone there).  

 

Exercise 25, 280: Paraphrase the following sentences, using 'need'.

1.It's not necessary for you to leave so early. 2. It is not necessary for you to repeat it so many times. 3. Why are you talking in a whisper? Nobody is sleeping. 4. It wasn't necessary for you to trouble him. They were quite able to do the work without him. 5. Why did you raise this question again? It had been settled. 6. It wasn't necessary for you to buy a new coat this year. 7. She got worried quite unnecessarily. 8. It was a waste of time to talk to him on the subject.

 

Exercise 26, p. 280: Translate the following sentences into English, using 'need'.

1.Нам не нужно брать такси. Вокзал недалеко отсюда. 2. Ей не нужно было садиться на восьмичасовой поезд. Она стояла всю дорогу. 3. Вам не нужно звонить ей. Она уже пришла. 4. Не удивительно, что вы заблудились. Вам не нужно было переходить железную дорогу. Деревня на этой стороне. 5. Ей незачем напоминать о том, что ей нужно делать. Она сама всё помнит. 6. Вы можете не есть суп, если не хотите. 7. Вам не нужно было давать им никаких обещаний. 8. Он сказал, что ей незачем было волноваться. 9. Он сказал, что мне можно не возвращать книги в понедельник.

 

Ехercise 27, p. 280: Compare the meaning of 'should' and 'have to'; 'should' and 'must’; 'should' and 'need’. Translate the sentences into Russian.

(A) 1. (i) She has to get up very early. Her office is a long way from here. (ii) She should get up very early, then she won't be late again. 2. (i) She doesn't have to make her son read. He is fond of reading. (ii) She shouldn't make her son read much, his eyes are very weak. 3. (i) It was so noisy in the hall. He had to shout to be heard. (ii) They didn't hear him. He should have shouted to be heard. 4. (i) He didn't have to remind her of her promise. She was as good as her word. (ii) He shouldn't have reminded her of her promise. She was hurt.

(B) 1. (i) You must see the doctor. (ii) You should see the doctor. 2. (i) You mustn't smoke. (ii) You shouldn't smoke. 3. (i) You needn't go to her. You can phone her. (ii) You shouldn't go to her. She is too ill to see anybody. 4. (i) You needn't have warned her about the danger. She knew about it better than anybody else. (ii) You shouldn't have warned her about the danger. You've frightened her.

 

Exercise 28, p. 281: Insert 'had to', 'didn't have to' or 'should + perfect inf.' or 'shouldn't +perfect inf.' according to the sense.

1.You — (wake) me up. Why did you? You know, I don't have to go to the office today. 2. I — (wake) him up because I was afraid he would be late again. 3. He — (wait) for the next train long and arrived in time for the plane. 4. He — (take) an early train not to miss the plane. He has lost a whole day for nothing. 5. We — (wait) for her, because she never came at all. 6. I — (tell) him about it personally, I wrote him a letter. 7. You — (say) anything, nobody asked you. Now you've ru­ined our plan. 8. She — (stay) at the hotel until she received the money from home. 9. She — (stay) at the hotel another day. Why did she break the arrangement? 10. They — (argue), they came to an agreement almost at once.

 





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