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IX. Определите грамматическое время и залог всех глаголов в последнем абзаце.
Функции глаголов to be и to have (обобщение)
Упр. 1. Определите функции глагола to be и переведите предложения:
1. She is an experienced lawyer. 2. We were to meet on Sunday. 3. Where are you going? 4. Were you in the court last summer? 5. Don’t forget that we are to meet in the evening. 6. He is in the prison now. 7. There will be an interesting case next week. 8. He is reading up for his report. 9. They are to come in 20 minutes. 10. You were to tell us about it. 11. I am afraid of nothing.
Упр. 2. Переведите, учитывая разные функции глагола to be:
He was to listen to you; he was listening; he was listened to; he was a rich person; it is defense; it is to defense; he is defensing; it is a difficult case; they are caused; they are to cause; he will be changed; he is changed; he is to change.
Упр. 3. Определите функции глагола to have и переведите предложения:
1. I have plenty of papers to read. 2. Have a look at these footprints! 3. I have to pay my bills today. 4. I have already heard about this criminal. 5. She has just asked the militiaman. 6. They have accurate information every day. 7. We have breakfast in the morning. 8. He had to stay at home because we had spent all our money. 9. We had a meeting after the process yesterday. 10. We had to wait for him for half an hour. 11. They had had dinner before we came. 12. Next week I shall have to preserve evidence. 13. I’ll have the car brought round. 14. The man had his leg amputated. 15. We have to find his revolver. 16. They will have a new injured woman soon.
Упр. 4. Переведите, учитывая разные функции глагола to have:
I have arrived; I have to arrive; he had to betray; he had betrayed; he had the case to investigate; I will have to understand; he has helped; he has to help; he will have to help; he had to help; he has asked; they have to ask; you had asked; she has to ask.
The Infinitive Инфинитив
Инфинитив – неличная форма глагола, обладающая признаками и глагола, и существительного.
Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to (to go, to do, to help).
Частица to не ставится:
1) после модальных глаголов (can, may, must, need, could, might, should): She can swim well. They should do it.
2) после глаголов to make (в значении “заставлять” в активном залоге), to let (разрешать): She let them go.
3) после выражений had better (лучше бы): You’d better sing us. А также would rather (предпочел бы): I would rather do it later.
Упр. 1. Найдите инфинитив в предложении. Объясните случаи, где инфинитив употреблен без частицы to. Предложения переведите:
1. He wanted the Court to resolve a question of great constitutional importance. 2. They promised to inform us about their work. 3. His parents let him work on a fixed-term contract. 4. To commit a crime is bad. 5. Jane wants to commit suicide. 6. The chief clerk makes the workers work. 7. You had better think about it. 8. Let me know what’s happening. 9. They will go to the court to sue for a divorce. 10. You needn’t decide at once how to act. 11. Don’t make him issue a warrant. 12. His friend made him serve a witness with a summons.
Упр. 2. Раскройте скобки, употребив инфинитив с частицей to или без нее:
1 Let him (to help) you with your work 2. He would rather die than (to betray) his friends. 3. Have you ever heard him (to complain) of difficulties? 4. I want (learn) Law. 5. She seems (to know) a great deal about criminology. 6. Have you enough (to pay) the bills?
1. Инфинитив имеет формы залога (т. е. может быть активным и пассивным).
2. Инфинитив имеет формы относительного времени (т. е. выражают одновременность по отношению к другому действию (Indefinite Infinitive, Continuous Infinitive) или предшествование по отношению к другому действию (Perfect Infinitive).
Перевод инфинитива на русский язык зависит от его формы.
Упр. 3. а) пользуясь таблицей, дайте остальные формы следующих инфинитивов:
to ask, to do, to help, to make, to translate, to pass, to take, to answer;
b) определите форму данных инфинитивов:
to trouble (беспокоить), to have troubled, to be working, to have been told, to be invited, to have been working, to be done, to be doing, to have invited, to have lost, to stay, to be answered, to have made, to have been made, to have been reading, to have phoned, to have been asked, to have met, to be met, to have been helped, to be helping, to be helped, to have sent, to have been questioned.
Упр. 4. Укажите форму инфинитива. Сравните значения различных форм:
1. I like to ask questions. Я люблю задавать вопросы. 2. I like to be asked many questions. Я люблю, когда мне задают много вопросов. 3. They happened, at the moment, to be asking something about the case. В этот момент они как раз что-то спрашивали о деле. 4. I remember to have asked this question. Я помню, что задавал этот вопрос. 5. I remember to have been asked this question. Я помню, что мне задавали этот вопрос. 6. For about twenty minutes they seemed to have been asking one and the same question formulating it in different ways. Минут двадцать они, казалось, задавали один и тот же вопрос, по-разному формулируя его.
Упр. 5. Переведите:
1. After ten years a barrister may ask to be made a Queen’s Counsel, or Q.C . 2. Laws are not made to be broken. 3. To visit her was all that I wanted. 4. He is proud to have been offered this post. 5. My greatest wish was to tell her everything. 6. For a moment she seemed to be hesitating. 7. He demanded to know the truth. 8. All I want to do is to help you. 9. He seemed to have received all he wanted. 10. Alice arrived in time to hear Tom’s remark. 11. I am sorry not to have seen her. 12. They demanded to be shown the authentic documents.
Упр. 6. a) вставьте подходящую по смыслу форму инфинитива: Passive или Active:
1. The members of the jury want … The witnesses want … (to understand, to be understood). 2. We expected the hearing … next month. He expected … the attention of the audience (to hold, to be held). 3. Some changes had … He wanted … some changes in the speech (to make, to be made). 4. There were a lot of things … He was nowhere … (to see, to be seen).
b) Вставьте подходящую по смыслу форму инфинитива Indefinite или Perfect:
1. It’s good … work for the day (to finish, to have finished). 2. She admits … the same mistake in her previous paper (to make, to have made). 3. He was sorry not … the idea earlier (to give up, to have given up). 4. She confessed … the man before (to see, to have seen). 5. The negotiations seem … to an end (to come, to have come). 6. The relations between the two countries seem … the lowest point (to reach, to have reached).
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