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Упр. 4. Сделайте предложения отрицательными и вопросительными.




1. Only the government can overturn a decision of the House of Lords. 2. I could park there. 3. I may smoke at the performance. 4. You must leave the room at once. 5. In the opinion of many people, the law is a necessary evil that should be used only when everyday, informal ways of setting disputes break down. 6. We will have to change our style of living. 7. We are to hand in our projects on Monday. 8. There are also restrictions on who may conduct a case in court. 9. They could do it themselves. 10. Alice can give you her permission.

Упр. 5. Поставьте следующие предложения в прошедшее и будущее время.

1. The executors have to work hard. 2. I can go shopping with you. 3. The court of England may discharge a person absolutely or conditionally if it believes that punishment should not be inflicted and a probation order is not appropriate. 4. They are to read all articles from this book. 5. We must help him. 6. You may ask any questions you like. 7. Problems of evidence can arise even when there is a detailed written. 8. We must discuss this problem in detail. 9. She has to take part in the conference. 10. Whether there is will or not, it may take some time to deal with the dead person’s property. 11. You must pay your taxes. 12. I can drive very fast. 13. They are to answer these questions. 14. They have to return a verdict quickly.

Упр. 6. Раскройте скобки, выбрав нужный модальный глагол.

1. Sometimes we (can, must) break rules and do not suffer any penalty. 2. When we buy train ticket a lawyer (may, have to) tell us it represents contact with legal obligations. 3. (Have to, Сan) you please comment only on this case? 4. We learn how we (may, should) behave in society through the instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, and our own experiences. 5. To achieve (чтобы достичь) progress in any subject we (may, must) discuss things. 6. You (can’t, shouldn’t) worry. 7. When we are introduced to new people we (may, should) try to appear friendly (казаться дружелюбными). 8. You (must, can) be there on time. 9. I (may, have to) get up early.

Упр. 7. Переведите, указав значения модальных to be и to have.

To have to – to be to необходимость
To have to + inf – вынужденная необходимость To be to + inf – необходимость по договоренности, плану или приказу
I have to go there I had to go there I’ll have to go there Я вынужден идти туда Я вынужден был идти туда Я вынужден буду идти туда I am to go there I was to go there Я должен идти туда Мне предстояло идти туда (договорились)

 

1. We are to meet Jane at the station. 2. Helen is to go to the court. 3. Ann has to prepare all documents herself as her lawyer is away. 4. They had to wait long as she didn’t return in time. 5. The judge isn’t in his office. You will have to come here again. 6. What time were they to come here yesterday? 7. My witness is to arrive on Sunday. 8. We are to come only in the most important cases. 9. The meting starts at 5 a.m., so we shall have to return earlier. 10. The conversation is to take place after discussion. 11. When people buy an initial house or apartment they have to borrow a lot of money from a mortgagee such as a bank or a building society.

Упр. 8. Поставьте нужную форму глагола to be. Предложения переведите.

1. The proceeding … to begin at eight. 2. She … to come and help. 3. You … to sign this paper. 4. We … to discuss various problems. 5. I … to leave tomorrow. 6. You … to practise much. 7. We … to wait for them at the door. 8. He … to speak with confidence. 9. They … to stay at that meeting yesterday. 10. They … to start on Monday. 11. New legislation…to be introduced to help single-parent families.

Упр. 9. Поставьте нужную форму глагола to have. Предложения переведите.

1. She … to send a telegram because it was too late to send a letter. 2. I … to finish some work in my office. 3. If I don’t ring up before six o’clock, then you … to go to the court alone. 5. The people … to summon up their courage for the battle. 6. You … to do it alone, without anybody’s help. 7. They … to read this article. 8. I didn’t feel well yesterday but I … to go to the Criminal Investigation Department because I was to take an exam. 9. The case is rather difficult that’s why you … to speak with your adviser.

Упр. 10. Передайте содержание следующих предложений, употребив сказуемое в пассивном залоге. Предложения переведите:

Образец: You must do it. – It must be done.

Вам нужно это сделать. – Это нужно сделать.

You can do it. – It can be done.

Ты можешь это сделать. – Это можно сделать.

1. You must insist on the payment. 2. You can find the document you need in any library. 3. We must send these contracts at once. 4. You must check these accounts. 5. You can overturn this decision. 6. The judge can make a decision very soon. 7. You must hear the case the day after tomorrow. 8. I can easily forgive this mistake. 9. You can understand court proceedings. 10. You must do this work very carefully.

Упр. 11. Неопределенное местоимение one может быть подлежащим для обозначения неопределенного лица. Такие предложения на русский язык переводятся неопределенно-личными предложениями.

One can see – можно видеть

One must know – нужно знать

One needn’t hurry – ненадо спешить

One must not be late – нельзя опаздывать

1. One must know the rights. 2. If one wants to work, one can always find time for it. 3. One can easily do it. 4. One must work hard at this agreement if one wants to find a balance. 5. One mustn’t represent different amount of monetary compensation. 6. What can one prove? 7. One may take a code and read it. 8. One needn’t pay my debts. 9. One must establish his guilt 10. One must hear the arguments. One mustn’t enter land without the owner’s permission.

TEXT I

Упр. 1. Прочитайте следующие слова:

Imprisonment [im'prizənmənt] - тюремное заключение; primarily ['praimərili] - главным образом; confinement [kən'fammənt] - лишение свободы, заключение под стра­жу; convicted person - осужденный; transportation - транспортация (ссылать за моря как вид уголовного наказания); abolition [æbə′li∫ən] - отмена; concern [kən'sə:n] - забота, беспокойство; diminish [di'mini∫] - уменьшаться; compound [kəm'paund] - усугублять; predominantly [pri'dÉminəntli] -главным образом; in custody- содержащийся под стра­жей; previous conviction- судимость; burglary [′bэ:gləri] -ночная кража со взломом; robbery ['rÉbəri] - грабеж с на­силием или разбой.



 

Соотнесите термин и его дефиницию:

Detention facility facility where convicted offenders serve their sentence; includes country jails and state and federal prisons.
Correctional facility federal state penal institution which offenders serve sentences longer than one year.
Jail houses persons arrested and undergoing processing, awaiting trial or awaiting transfer to a correctional facility.
Prison is place of confinement administered by local officials and designed to hold persons for more than 48 hours but usually less than one year.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

PRISONS

The idea of imprisonment as a form of punishment is relatively modern. Until the late 18th century, prisons were used primarily for the confinement of debtors who could not pay, of accused persons waiting to be tried, and of those convicted per­sons waiting for their sentences—death or transportation. Since the late 18th century, with the decline of capital punishment (death penalty), the prison has come to be used also as a place of punishment. With the abolition of transportation, the prison has become the principal sanction for most serious crimes. Con­cern over prison conditions has not diminished over the years. Problems of security and the protection of prisoners from vio­lence on the part of other prisoners have been compounded by the difficulties arising from overcrowding, as prison populations in most countries continue to grow. The people who make up the populations of most prison systems have many characteris­tics in common. The populations of most prison systems are predominantly male—in England males outnumber females by 28 to 1 (although the number of women in prison is rising at a higher rate than the number of men)—and relatively young— nearly 70 percent of those in custody are under the age of 30. [To be in custody means to be kept in prison by the police until you go to court, because the police think you are guilty.] Most offenders in prison have a number of previous convictions; the offenses they have committed are most commonly burglary, theft, violence, or robbery. A similar picture is revealed by U.S. statistics; the most common offenses for which prisoners are in custody are burglary and robbery. [Burglary is the crime of get­ting into a building to steal things. Violence is behaviour that is intended to hurt other people physically. Robbery is the crime of stealing things from a bank, shop etc, especially using vio­lence.]

 

Упр. 3. Восстановите правильный порядок слов в вопросах:

1) What prisons were used primarily for until the late 18th cen­tury? 2) Why the prison has come to be used as a place of pun­ishment? 3) When the prison has become the principal sanction for most serious crimes? 4) What not diminished over the years has? 5) What have problems come into being as prison popula­tions in most countries continue to grow? 6) What make people up the populations of most prison systems? 7) What the most common offenses for which prisoners are in custody?

Упр. 4. Согласитесь или не согласитесь со следующими высказываниями:

1) The idea of imprisonment as a form of punishment is old. 2) Prisons were used for the confinement of debtors who didn't want to pay. 3) Prisons were used for the confinement of accused persons waiting to be freed. 4) Prisons were a deterrent to innocent persons. 5) With the abolition of death penalty, the prison has come to be used as a place of punishment. 6) With the decline of transportation, the prison has become the princi­pal sanction for most serious crimes. 7) Concern over prison conditions includes the protection of prisoners from violence on the part of warders and prisoners of conscience. 8) Concern over prison conditions includes the difficulties arising from overcrowding of mass and solitary cells. 9) Prison populations cease to grow. 10) Prison populations are predominantly female and relatively old.

 

Упр. 5. Восстановите порядок слов в следующих предложениях:

1) The idea is of imprisonment as a form of punishment rela­tively modem. 2) Prisons used were for the confinement of debtors who could not pay. 3) Prisons were for the confinement of accused persons waiting to be tried used. 4) Prisons for the confinement of those convicted persons waiting for their sen­tences were used. 5) With the decline of death penalty, the prison a place of punishment has come to be used as. 6) With the abolition of transportation, the prison the principal sanction for most serious crimes has become. 7) Concern over prison conditions the protection of prisoners from violence on the part of other prisoners includes. 8) Concern over prison conditions the difficulties arising from overcrowding includes. 9) Prison populations to continue grow. 10) Prison populations predomi­nantly male and relatively young are.

Упр. 6. Переведите следующие слова и выражения с русского языка на английский:

Тюремное заключение; тюремный надзиратель; содержа­щийся под стражей; лишение свободы; осужденный; обви­няемый; транспортация; камера одиночного заключения; приговор; должник; судимость; ночная кража со взломом; грабеж с насилием или разбой; санкция; население; узник совести; правонарушение; безопасность; защита; насилие; продолжаться; виновный; общая камера.

Упр. 7. Закончите следующие предложения:

1) The idea of imprisonment as a form of punishment is ... 2) Prisons were used for ... 3) With the decline of death penalty, the prison has come to be ... 4) With the abolition of transportation, the prison has become ... 5) Concern over prison conditions includes ... 6) Prison populations continue ... 7) Prison populations are ...

 

TEXT II

Упр. 1. Прочитайте следующие слова:

Serve a sentence - отбывать наказание; long sentence - длительный срок лишения свободы; short sentence - крат­кий срок лишения свободы; detain [di'tein] – содержать под стражей; security - режим в тюрьме; maximum-security prison- тюрьма с максимальной изоляцией за­ключенных; strict / high security- строгий режим; medium security- режим средней строгости; minimum security - общий режим; likely - склонный; escape - побег; constitute - составлять; confine - держать взаперти; open prison - тюрьма открытого типа (неохраняемая); abscond [əb'skÉnd] - скрываться от правосудия; treatment - исправление пре­ступников; detention centre- центр для содержания под стражей задержанных правонарушителей; discipline ['disiplin] - дисциплина.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

TYPES OF PRISONS

Prisons are classified administratively as lo­cal or central prisons. Local prisons serve a variety of pur­poses - holding prisoners awaiting trial or sentencing and pris­oners serving shorter sentences, up to about 18 months. There the worst overcrowding occurs. Prisoners serving longer sen­tences are detained in central prisons. Central prisons are large maximum-security prisons holding more than 1,000 offenders in conditions of strict security. For security, prisoners are classi­fied into four categories, from A (prisoners likely to attempt escape, and constituting, if successful, a significant danger to the public) to D (prisoners who can be trusted to work in condi­tions of minimal security). Prisoners who are not considered a danger to the community may be confined in low-security or open prisons, where there is normally no obstacle to a prisoner's absconding. Women are normally held in separate institutions. Young people who have done something illegal are kept in de­tention centres because they are too young to go to prison. The purpose of these institutions is rather treatment or correction than punishment. Detention centres for young offenders serving sentences that must not exceed four months are based on the principle of strict discipline and physical activity; research has failed to show, however, that it is an effective deterrent to fur­ther crime.

 

Упр. 3. Согласитесь или не согласитесь со следующими высказываниями:

1) Prisons are classified administratively as rural or municipal prisons. 2) Local prisons hold prisoners awaiting their release from prison. 3) Local prisons hold prisoners serving longer sen­tences. 4) The worst overcrowding occurs in and characterizes central prisons. 5) Prisoners serving shorter sentences are de­tained in central prisons. 6) Central prisons are open prisons. 7) Central prisons hold prisoners in conditions of low security. 8) Prisoners who are likely to attempt escape, and constituting, if successful, a significant danger to the public must be confined in low-security prisons. 9) Prisoners who are not considered a danger to the community may be confined in high-security pris­ons. 10) There are normally some obstacles to a prisoner's ab­sconding in open prisons. 11) Females are normally held to­gether with males. 12) Young offenders are kept in large maximum-security prisons. 13) Young offenders must not go to prison. 14) The purpose of detention centres is rather punish­ment than treatment. 15) Young offenders are to serve sentences that must not exceed twelve months. 16) Detention centres are based on the principle of permissiveness and mental activity. 17) Detention centres are an effective deterrent to further crime.

 

Упр. 4. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1) Are prisons classified administratively as local or central prisons? 2) Where are prisoners awaiting trial or sentencing hold? 3) What oc­curs in local prisons? 4) Prisoners serving longer sentences are detained in central prisons, aren’t they? 5) Are central prisons prisoners hold in conditions of strict security? 6) Prisoners who are not considered a danger to the community may be confined in low-security prisons, may not they? 7) Is there normally obstacle to a prisoner's absconding in open prison? 8) Women normally are held in separate institutions, are not they? 9) Where are young offenders kept? 10) What is the purpose of detention centres? 11) What do you know about the discipline in detention centres? 12) Detention centres are not an effective deterrent to further crime, are they?

 

Упр. 5. Переведите следующие слова и выражения с русского языка на английский:

Режим в тюрьме; задержание; тюрьма с максимальной изо­ляцией заключенных; режим средней строгости; сельский; общий режим; содержать под стражей; держать взаперти; неохраняемая тюрьма; скрываться от правосудия; строгий режим; незаконный; исправление преступников; побег; го­родской; центр для содержания под стражей задержанных правонарушителей; отбывать наказание; поведение, не представляющее опасности; освобождение из тюрьмы; все­дозволенность.

Упр. 6. Закончите следующие предложения:

1) Prisons are classified administratively as ... 2) Local prisons hold prisoners awaiting ... 3) Local prisons hold prisoners serv­ing ... 4) The worst overcrowding occurs in and characterizes ... 5) Prisoners serving longer sentences are detained in ... 6) Central prisons are ... 7) Central prisons hold prisoners in con­ditions of ... 8) Prisoners who are likely ... must be confined in ... 9) Prisoners who are not considered a danger to the commu­nity may be confined in ... 10) There is normally no obstacle to ... in open prisons. 11) Women are held in ... 12) Young of­fenders are kept in ... 13) Young offenders are too young to go ... 14) The purpose of detention centres is ... 15) Young of­fenders are to serve ... 16) Detention centres are based on ... 17) Detention centres are not...

 

TEXT III

Прочитайте и переведите текст:





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  1. Ex.1. Дополните предложения, используя условные конструкции и информацию из текста.
  2. Ex.1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя условные предложения.
  3. I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма инфинитивом, причастием или герундием. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.
  4. II период – период усвоения грамматической структуры предложения
  5. II. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, выделив указательные местоимения. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.
  6. III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент.
  7. III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения.
  8. Билет Закон спроса, факторы спроса, индивидуальный и рыночный спрос. Закон предложения, факторы предложения
  9. Билет Рыночное равновесие, равновесная цена и последствия нарушения равновесия. Эластичность спроса и предложения. Виды (формы) эластичности. Коэффициент эластичности
  10. Взаимодействие спроса и предложения. Рыночное равновесие.
  11. Взаимосвязь спроса и предложения.
  12. Вопрос 3. Функция предложения и факторы на него влияющие.




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