Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Prehistoric times, preliterate soci­eties, clans, tribes     3500-500 B.c.   ca 1200 B.c.   500 b.c.-a.d. 375   a.d. 400-1500   14th-17th centuries     Late 16th-19th centuries 18th-19th centuries Mid-19th century Late 19th century Mid-20th century Late 20th century     Sacrifices to spirits of animals and birds (a tradition which lived on in the later practice of tarring and feathering) Early civilizations: Conciliation — and victim compensation (Code of Hammurabi, 1750 в.с); con­finement of wrongdoer (slav­ery); exile and outlawry (declar­ing wrongdoer a wolf); private/tribal vengeance; capital punishment. (The wolf-outlaw lives on in fairy tales like "Little Red Riding Hood") Ancient empires Egypt, Greece, Rome: Emergence of idea of a goddess of justice who weighs the crime and the punishment Ancient Israel: Mosaic law limits punishment to the amount of harm done: an eye for an eye Rome: Forced labor (mining, gal­ley slavery), public executions (the Christians to the lions) Middle Ages, Europe: Blood feuds (Germanic law), capital punish­ment, corporal punishment (branding), compensation (fines); ever-increasing severity of these punishments Europe: Galley slavery reintro-duced; landlocked cities sell prisoners to port cities as galley slaves Holland and England create first houses of correction (Amster­dam; Bridewell, England); im­prisonment becomes principal form of punishment; capital and corporal punishment con­tinue, esp. flogging British Empire: England uses deportation of convicts to America (and later Australia); in England itself, prisoners in­carcerated in "prison hulks" Prison reform: Italy and France: Enlightenment reformers like Cesare Beccaria press for humanization of pun­ishment England: Jeremy Bentham in­vents panopticon prison (cen­tral control of all cells) United States: "Penitentiary wing" is built in Philadelphia's Walnut Street Jail United States: John Augustus, Boston cobbler, invents prac­tice of probation Britain: Alexander Maconochie, governor of a penal colony in Norfolk Islands in the Pacific, invents practice of parole United States: Reformatory move­ment 1870: First Prison Administrators meeting, Cincinnati. National Prison Association founded 1876: Elmira, New York: Peniten­tiary built according to reform­atory principles: lockstep, isola­tion, parole for "deserving" United States: post 1945: Medical treatment — model, but rigid and disciplin­ary practice; prison riots 1960s: Beginnings of humane approach; well-meaning treat­ment methods; only superficial change Prisoners' rights movement begins Supreme Court begins to in­volve itself in protecting inmate rights United States: 1975: Just deserts approach; fixed sentences; prison construction, overcrowding; prison ships used again in New York City 1980s-1990s: Cost-beneficial but tough alternatives

Вопросы для самоконтроля

1. Назовите, из каких компонентов состоит сказуемое в пассивном залоге. Какой из них несет смысловую нагрузку, а какой отвечает за видо-временную форму?

2. Совершается ли действие, выраженное глаголом в страдательном залоге, подлежащим?

3. Какой предлог употребляется перед дополнением, называющим производителя действия?

4. Как переводится предложение при употреблении в пассивном залоге глаголов, требующих после себя предлог (These children are not looked after)?

5. Поставьте глагол to answer во всех видо-временных формах пассивного залога.

6. В чем разница в значении модальных глаголов can, may, must?

7. Назовите форму прошедшего времени глаголов can, may и эквивалент must в прошедшем времени.

8. Назовите эквиваленты can, may и must в будущем времени.

9. В чем разница в значении модальных глаголов to be, to have?

10. После каких модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов инфинитив ставится с частицей to?


Задание на III семестр:

1. Знать ответы на все вопросы для самоконтроля.

Выполнить письменно контрольную работу № 3.

Уметь читать и устно переводить тексты по специальности; выписать и выучить незнакомые слова к этим текстам.


Контрольная работа № 3

Вариант № 1

I. Заполните таблицу, поставив предложения в соответствующие времена пассивного залога:

Время Предложение Обстоятельство Перевод
Present Simple The judges are chosen. twice a week.  
Past Simple   an hour ago.  
Future Simple   in the morning.  
Present Continuous   now.  
Past Continuous   when I came into the court.  
Present Perfect   just.  
Past Perfect   before they arrived.  
Future Perfect   by 12 o’clock.  


II. Распределите предложения на 2 группы:

1) предложения в Active Voice;

2) предложения в Passive Voice;

Определите время каждого предложения. Предложения переведите:

1. We have read about the law. 2. The law has been already broken down. 3. A surprisingly small proportion of criminal cases go for jury trial. 4. He was abolished death penalty. 6. I’ll ask you to do this work. 7. I’ll be asked to help him. 8. The meeting was canceled by the president. 9. I was given the money. 10. She has been sent 2 guns. 11. He is away on business. 12. Many of the accused were subjected to trial. 13. They haven’t yet sent for the assistant. 14. We shall be discussing the article for the next 45 minutes. 15. We are here now.

III. Вставьте can, may или must в нужной форме:

1. I … go and see him in a day or two. 2. … you drive? 3. It … rain tonight. 4. You … use all my books. 5. May I take your article? – Yes, you … . 6. John … be in the court by now. 7. … you give me this code? 8. At 2 o’clock they … go to the living-room for discussion. 9. … I read the case? 10. You … not smoke so much.


IV. Сделайте предложения отрицательными и вопросительными:

1. I can see him there. 2. We must go there at once. 3. Discovering the ration decidendi of a case is often difficult but it may involve the separation of the relevant and irrelevant parts of a judgement. 4. You may take this case. 5. I can imagine how angry he is. 6. You must talk to the criminal.


V. Подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Предложения переведите:

1. You ought to have another opinion. 2. Judges must be independent of the parties. 3. It cannot be true. 4. I had to do it yesterday. 5. You should do it now. 6. We were to meet our shareholders at the entrance of the office at a quarter to eight. 7. I shall have to take the people in the hall, as usual. 8. Some years ago a fraud trial had to be abolished. 9. You should be more careful. 10. I might get a nice reward. 11. Why couldn’t you do it yourself? 12. The defense can challenge jurors. 13. If the defendant pleads not guilty, the prosecution must establish his guilt by means of oral evidence. 14. You ought to help him; he is in trouble. 15. Why do I have to do everything? 16. He must have been writing a letter when I came. 17. At your age you ought to be earning your living. 18. Is he to arrive tomorrow?

VI. Переведите, обращая внимание на разные функции глагола to be. Глагол to be подчеркните:

How are they to know that you are here? 2. In silence the defenсe was finished. 3. The laws of many European countries were developing on the basis of Roman law. 4. They were thus introduced by my chief. 5. When I returned to town the prison was still being built.6. I never talk while I am working. 10. She is to say nothing of this to anybody. 11. The jury is still discussing the verdict. 12. The courts are interpreters of the law. 13. They are in the police. 14. What are you crying for? 15. You were to arrive yesterday. 16. You have been a good deal talked about.

VII. Переведите, обращая внимание на разные функции глагола to have:

1. Each country of the world has it’s own system of law. 2. I am a little frightened for I have lost my way. 3. Have you ever spoken about punishing the offender? 4. In each city had it’s own law. 5. I’d like to have a look at that expert. 7. The Napoleon Code has influenced the laws of many countries in America. 8. French public law has never been codified. 9. The Athenians did not consider if necessary to have legal experts for non-criminal cases. 10. Have you a message for me, Polly? 11. What have they done? 12. She had read much in several languages, and she could give legal advice to her client.

VIII. Переведите текст, выписав слова юридической тематики.

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